20th Century Russia
4 Sep 94

"In any case, number is a first-class pointer. It provides an index of succes and failure ... It indicates the decisive relationships between the diverse human masses." Fernard Braudel - French Historian

1897, and all That ... Demography and Russian Realities

A. The Empire's first true census
B. How many people?
C. How many peoples?
D. Trends

Russia teritory today is about the same as the turn of the Century
125 million people lived there in 1897, mostly in western Russia

How many peoples -- Estates
Hereditary Nobles .97
Service Nobles .5
Clergy .49
Urbanites 10.66
Pessants 77.12
Cossacks 2.3
Alens 6.61
Foreigners .49

Pessants and Urbanites ... how few were eliets
class devides whole society

Jews prohibided to live in certain areas
Poles would not be permoted

Used language as a way to show Ethonicity
Great Russians 44.5
Ukrainians 17.9
Belorissians 4.9
Poles 6..3
Lithornians 1.3
Latvians 1.1
Moldavians .9
Germans 1.4
Jews 4.1

Great Russinas > 55 millians, other groups were Georgians, Armanians, Estonians, Mordrivans, Tatars & Azerbajanis, Baskkes, Uzbeks, Kazakhs & Klignz

Ehnic realities started with 13th Centry Moscow ... 16th Centry malitary venturs moved east over 5 centries taking land to east ...

Leading up to the 20th Centurn, the eleits in Russia increasingly to western Europe for its cultural norms ... making this small group divided by a gulf from the masses of Russia. Most Russians lived a settled live style ... in the city or country ...

Religion also reflected the diversity of Russian Peoples
most were Russian Orthodox ... others were Catholics, prostestan, Jews (originally Poles), Muslims living near Black Sea (13 million, 2nd largest),

Moving into 20th Century --
increasing social complexity
increasing ethonic desputes
increasing business complesity
increasing social antoganisms - class differences,
ethnic expression of nathonlism

Tensions emerge and conflects increase ...

Numbers point suggest ...
vast land mass
Russia troubled by social, echonomic, cultural, problems
Administration fails to reform how country is ruled as times changed ...
Changes were undertaken, but tinkering was not good enought
Modernation was a moving force, but brought with it great pressures
Ethnic groups, at least 20, with Russians dominating, but not a majority ...
Russian empire was NOT Russian ... what makes a good citizen ...
conflect increases ... as ethnics want their own nationality

"As minister of finance I was also in charge of our commerce and industry. As such I increased our industry threefold. This again is held against me. Fools! It is said that I took artificial measures to develop our industry. What a sill phrase? How else can one develop and industry?" Serget Witte

Socity at beginning of 20th Century ...

Russia as a Backward Socitty

A. Russia in contexts
B. Rural Russia
C. Industrial Russia
D. Count Witte and the challenges of Modernizing Russia

Russia is part of one giant land mass ... connected to Western Europe
Europe had for 300 years and more been expanding it influence and
relationship with rest of world ... Europe was at its peak ...
power politics ... compitation among themselves ...
Europe is pre-eminent around the world
Europe represented a constant slient subversion on rest of the world
To non-Europans, Europe seemed to be Best ... could not be chalanged
the eveloution to a maket echonomy ...
and Europeans sociaty ... a redefination of civilization ... life will be
better for the next generation ... things are changing, getting better
rest of world was beginning to take notice, and the intelegencia was wondering
if they were being left behind
this was happening in Russia ... How to compete with Europe
as the world was increasingly becoming a Darwinen world ...
survival of the fittest is applied to peoples, culture, nations, race
Europe's sence of superiority ...
in part, rest of world begins to see thenselves as inferior ...

Russia is the first non-Europeian nation to respond to this challange from Western Europe, by addapting western ways ... as best as posible ... this presented great obsticals ...
World Russia ... serfdom ... Russian peasants were tied to communities, and to the land, technically free, very limited freedom, very little productivity ... sub-sistance living, - dying village ... Russia need's a revolution

The Prolateriate - city workers growing, hard life, crule, long hours, minimum wages
The Workers, roots in country, work maybe only part of year, roudy, difficult to control, beginning to orginize, listen to agitators ...

Russian backwardness ... Count Witte, German, Minister of Finance - 1892
Desperate echonomic conditions compaired to Europe
Needs to harness national resources ...
Rapid industrilation is needed to move Russia forward (hot house technics)
use interventness technics, as in Japan
build railroads as a way to stimulate growth ... link wast to far east
finance this with taxes on Pesants and world loans

added great strain to an already stained sociaty ... faced many probles, FAILED


"There exists two Russias, one quite different from the other. One is the Russian of the future ...; the other is an anachronism, deeply rooted in the past, and defended in the present by an omnipotent bureaucracy. The one spells liberty, the other, despotism." Paul Milukov, Russian historian and liberal politician

Russia as a Backward Socitty (II)

A. The political order
B. The political and social imagination
C. The dissidence of the intelligentsia

Russian empire was an Absolute Monarchy ...
Article 1 & 47 - pose a contradiction, 1 - absolute monarch, 47 - positive laws
an autocratic Monarch ruled by law
Russian government had been reformed often leading up to 20th Centurn
the effect of which was to limit the power of the Monarch
Empire governed by two sets of principles
Buracrati Wim
Constitationalism --- opposing sets of principles
poliitical contradiction ... with sense of itself

Russian politics
16h political culture survives even to today ... accepting authortian rule
geography presented a dificult environment for agraculture surplus
peasants, influnced ... survival, maintain stability, avoid risk, supress i
individual anisiative .... communial behaiver
these set of circumstance promote authortian rule, relience on secreticy
prencipal of extreme centerlism to political pholoiphy
with a tendence to mix property and politics ... minimum private property
Control is the logical consiquence of these things

A novel - Oblomov, Zakhar, Stolz
about a sickness, Oblomovits ... out of date, out of touch ... a forginer showing
Russia how to act ... reflects Russian uperclass ... what's wrong political ... no
wonder Russia is a backward place

The Intelegencia ... dificult to define ... point to ... filled with diverse people
all were thing people ... serious thought to where Russia was going
orgins in late 18th century ...
an earily split, consertive (for individuals, moral condition) blame people
the liberal (good people, problems are external to) blame institutions...
birth of third group ...
the Radicals ... release the Peasonts to their own productivity, save Russia
tended to be idealogs, grand solutions, did not help individuals
speak in the name of "the People"


"Give us an organization of revolutionaries and we shall overturn the whole of Russia." V.I. Lenin -- What is to be Done?

Social Democracy in Russia: from Marxism to Lenism

A. Marxism comes to Russia
B. Experience of Russian Marxism to the mid - 18890's
C. Fragmentation of Russian Marxism by the turn of the century

The comming of Marxism
started with Populism - transfrom from absolute to democracy,
a socialists solution,
some populists worked directly with pesants ...
others wanted to attack directly the political order
a split into two parties
Black Repartition
People's WIll, committed to terism, overthrow the government,
plot to murder the Tzar ... bombed ...
resulted in a turn to a more authortian rule ... all Populists are targeted
People's Will is destroyed along with Black Repartition

George Plekhanov - Black Repartitionists living abroad ... the first Russian Marxest
turns to the Industrial working class, the budding Proletariat, the seeds
for a revolution ... a literal Marxest, whould lead to conflect with Lenin
"The Liberation of Labor" - first Marxest orginization in Russia

Dictatorship - the domination of the majority over a small minority

Marxism inside Russia
Marx writtings were generally available in Russia ...
1891 famine, widespread ... government ineffective, seeds for Radicals
Workers forming unions were also receptive to Marxists

V. I. Lenin
non-discript in his youth, older brother involved with plot to kill tzar
in trying to understand his brother's involvment, Lenin accepts path of revolution
classic Marxists ...by 20th Century is exciled to Siberia ...

Revisionists, Echonomests, both view that the Revolution is quit some time away

"What needs to be Done" - we need a new kind of party ... suggests that man doesn't have to wate for revolution, but can be made to come ...

"I shall safeguard the principles of autocracy as firmly adn as unflinchingly as did my late unforgettable father.: Nicholas II - at the begining of his reign.

Russia's First Revolutionary Movement 1905 -07

A. The regine of the last Tsar
B. The short victorious war that wasn't, Japan shakes the world
C. Revolution by accident?

Preception of Russia at the turn of Century ...
everyone expected Monarchy to have great problems
Gorky - "a stormy petrol" a symbol for many Russians
Nichollas II couldn't see it.

Nichollas II
generally dismissed as weak, dutifully father

1904 war with Japan ...
Japan was a modernising nation ... more successful than Russia ...
Russia move toward Pacific was continuing for hundreds of years
Russia is humulated in an unexpected defeat ... Russian fleat is distroyed ...
Japan base close to fighting, Russia far away, Japan was prepaired
for war, Russia was not.
Russia defeated, a great disaster - revails fundemental weakness of Russia
Assian peoples defeate a European peoples ... upsets all of Europe

1905 Revolution ---
breaks out before conclusion of war, a revolution by accident
a revolution of the people ... acting without help from the so-called
revolutionists ... catches many by surrprise
Jan 9, 1905 - Bloddy Sunday -- peacefill demonstration of workers,
led by a priest, not revolutionists, asking for justice and protection
were committed to tcar, attacked by guards ...
Summer of 1905,

Tcar's government, and war with Japan ... General Strike ...
Witti - grant people a constitition

October Manifesto , right to vote,
by 1907 order was restored by increasing repression by government ...
promise of election of the Duma ...

Duma ... great distrust between the Tcar and the elected members of the Duma
Duma 1 - short history
Duma 2 - short history, entirly controled by opposition, demand too radical
Tcar dissolved, call new election
1907, election laws rewritten to get a more conserative Duma
Duma 3 - sets stage for ....


"Things have disappeared like smoke to gain the new artistic culture art approached creation as an end in itself and domination over the forms of nature.: Kazimir Melevich, 1916

Cultural Currents during the "Silver Age" the world of art

A. The cultural scare and its trends
B. The Painting of Kazimir Melevich

Small deads ... 1880's ... dried up

1895 ... new ideas
treat humans as if they were animals
progress, better and bertter life
socity over the individual

Cultural Rennaunce
Cosomopoltian and Sincratic
willing to look to Europe and elsewhere for inspiration, but to redefine
Expermintation and individualistic
to experminent and to move on very quickly
Individuality and triumpt of creativity
Whole cloth, artis artis and worked in multiple medium

The World of Art
propergated Russian Art in Europe ...
Art for art's sake ... efforts to cross boundry ... for the whole

Kazimir Melevich, painter, in front of expermintation, individual involved in stage and acting, not formally educated, discovered the wanders ...naturalists representations, then an impressionest, in next few years mystical and religious art nouveau, crazed self portray, icon painting and folk art, neo-primative, The Woodcutter - cubists, cubo futurests, 1913 trans-rational realism (not logical), trying to create a new language. "I have excaped from the circle of thigs." 1917 - the BlackSquare, hung in position of a Russian Icon, illogical, suverting, revolutionary, "The zero of form", an art of Suprematism, Black, Red (colored), White phases ... reality beyond the real ... White on White ... the real concept of infinity ...

The October Revolution --- began a subversion of Melvich and his piers art ...

"The political crisis has been followed by a spritual crisis that damands profound and concentrated reflection ... and self criticism. If Russian society is really still alive and viable, if it harbors seeds of the future then this must manifest itself first and formost in a readness and a capacity to learn from history." Serge Bulgakov (1901)

Cultural Currents During the Silver Age: The World of the Spirit

A. The cultural scene and its trends
B. The reawakening of religion
C. The reconsideration of philosophy

Late 1990's thru 1910, posibilities of the future were challanged ... looking for a period of crisis of the sperit, cosmopolitian and sincrotism ... argument and debate, contradiction ... in thought and painting ...

Growing importance of individual ...

Re-awakening of Religion
Russian Orthodox Christianity ... the church had been made a part of state government bureaucracy ... popular loyality declined ... clergy become a closed community, almost a cast, clurgy becomes a perminent profession, declining influence

Reaction ... brings new leadership ... by 1895 ... Starets - the wise, the saintly, lives the file of the saint, wanders off to live divicult life ... Starets fill gap of old clurgy ...

Internal reform, reform to revive the church to allow it to perform it true role, reform church role, clurgy behavior ... and liberation from its link with the state, not total independance, just from excessive control

Reaching out to the intellegincia ... who had abandonded the church ...

Reflects a renew of interest in the Church, so that it could play a leading roll again

Islam - Muslims (13 million) a prominent role in Russia ... Colonalism was a threat to their existance, also modern life with its seperation of religion from affairs of every day life ... forces a reconsideration ... some turn to thoughts of old time Islam, others willing to accept changes of modern life, willing to become modern ... willingness to borrow ideas and practices from others ... uphold religious law and modern at the same time.
Live modern and be Muslim

Vloamr Solov'er, philosophy, reaching out to find better solution to Russia's problems.
Problems of Idealism, and Sign Posts ...


"Revolution does not always come when thing are going from bad to worse ... The regime that is destroyed by a revolution is almost always better than the one preceding it, and experience teaches us that usually the most dangerous time for a bad government is when it attempts to reform itself." Alesis deTocqueville

The Last Years of the Old Regime
A. Regime and government
B. Reform initiatives
C. The resurgence of labor strife
D. The coming of World War I

The Prime Minister 1906 - 1911, Peter Stolippin
valued cooperation of Duma in government
love or hate him
supported a radical land reform

Pesants freed from ownership, not freed from land ... little freedom to move or make own decessions ...
The Mir ... a division of land amount farming communities
land belongs to commune as a whole
in a commune, land was divided amont families
How to divide the land, not of same quality

Families end up with many different strips of land, not all of equal quality
Nature of Mir, with peasants tied to Mier ... couldn't leave with out permission
mobility was limited
decission made by small group of elderd, based on community as whole
decissions forced by the taxes collected on Mir as a whole
responsibility of small group of elders, had to plan for everyone
minimized options available to peasants
egalaternism, in a cycle ... all land strips were redevided (3,5 years)
self-inisative limited ...

Peter Stolippin reforms
ordered state lands made available for sale at reasonable prices
granted peasants right to leave mir, with right to consoadate strips in Mir
incouraged migration to Siberia, free land and other help
eliminated corpal punishment, eligable for elected office

Key to agriain reform ... homesteads like in US mid west ... improve life of peasants ... positive effects leading up to WWI ... time ran out ... revolution and civil war

Other reforms ...
The Third Duma ... 5 years ... only one of 4, that served out its full term
Education, compulsary, universial primary education in 10 years
4 years of schooling, male and female, teachers, schools
attempted to give Religious tolaration a legal form

Labor movement
social antaganism against landowners
influenced by propaganda of relovitionary groups

"On this historic day, the representative of the various nationalities and parties were moved by one thought only, one great emotion rang quivering in every voice ... Hand off Holy Rusia! We are ready to make any sacrifice to defend the honor and dignity of the one indivisible Russian state ..."

World War I and the end of Tsardom
A. Russia joins the Allies
B. The war on the Eastern Front
C. The war on the home front

War came at a very bad time for Russia as it crippled the reform process under way

August 1914, Russia enters war on side of Allies ...
welcomed by masses of pupulation, but support quickly slipped.
defeat or victory would bring great change ...
it was expected that war would last only a few weeks

The Russian Eastern Front
as war proceeds, this front is pushed east into Russia

Problems casued by war added to Russia's other problesm
lack of war supplies
1 million men more that riffles, shortages of big weapons also
caused by insufficient budget, and inept leadership
great turnover in government leadership during war ... primeminister turnover

Grigorii Rasputin
the preception of how Rasputin affected the Tsar's Family
the preception that Rasputin was running Russia

Nichollas II
Aug 1915 - decided to assume persional command of arms, went to front
assumed personal responsibility ...
leving Government in other hands
in position for his leadership to be further diminished

Impact of WWI
large numbers of men withdrawn from occupations
37% of warking age men ... out of normal echonomy
industries suffered because of lack of skilled workers
led to longer work day
decline in productivity
pessant farming was less effected, partly because of an excess of labor
farm estates suffered greatly
-- food supplies declined greatly ... facing increasing demand
upset the ballance of supply and demand
Trade - trade routes had to be altered ...
exports declined by more that 50%, produced a trade imballance
advance of front into Russia, a great loss of farm land and live stock
also large numbers of population of this area was move pushed
into interior Russa
Echonomic impact of war was very serious, in Russia already stressed ..
Political Impact of War ...
Tzar - ineptness, indecivness, inability to understand what is happening socially
looked upon the war as something that could be weathered ....
never understood war for what is could be
a war that would finally push masses of people to rebel


"The situation worsens, Measures must be taken immediately. The last hour has come when the fate of the country and the dynasty is to be decided. Tomorrow will be too late." Tleegram form Michael Rodzianko (Duma President) to Nicholias II, 2-17-17

1917: The February Revolution
A. Aspirations and intentions
B. Institutional dualities
C. Deepening of the Revolution
D. Revolutionary policies : July to October, October Revolution

Abondanment of theTsar
President of Duma notifies Tsar on 2-17
Petrograd of the Soviet
Duma tempoary commettee to govern
Cabinet of 10, the provisional government ...

Serious differences between Tsar government
priviledged Russian and the ruling class
popular Russia
double advance towards change

Priviledged Russia
who were the people, westernized, parts of bureaucracy, and the middle class -
the bourgeoisie
their program was of reform, not of revolution ... to win the war, to insure
echonomic recovery, concer about freedom for
social reforms had to be postponed until election could be held

Popular Russia, much larger
Workers, pessants, soldiers -- very differect from Priviledged Russia
emphisis on freedom from want and deprovation, hunger, explotation,
unfairness, not political liberties
Factory Committees, Soldiers Councils, The Petrograd of the Soviet

February to October Revolution
exercising authority and shairing power
The Petrograd of the Soviet were not interested in exercising because they
believe that conditions were not right for true socialests to take a
dominant role ... let the bourgeoisie take the lead

Problem of duality in authority ...
caused openions to move to extreams instead of the middle ... moving
the revolution every more radical

Lenin and the Bolsheviks ...
Lenin had been abroad ... in Genevia, arrives April 3 with radically different
openion. His own analysis
- provisional government is still Capitalists
- war an imperialists war
- moderate leaders of Petrograd were selling out intrestest
- the bourgeoisie establilishing its own dictatorship over the revolution
Lenin -- what needs to be done ...
- desperate need to deepen the Revolution ... move to second stage
- power in the hands of the working class, pessants
- land needs to be scized
- all power to the Soviets
- the Bolsheviks ... need to gain control
- brings Bolsheviks into main, defines Revolution from abstract to real
- pessants were already taking land ...
- conflect as a tool ...
- only the Bolsheviks can lead the Revolutrion

Recolution was deepening on its own, Lenin ...

July uprizing - represents a part of an extension of Revolution, increassing of deteriation, absent of leadership ... Bolsheviks played a leading roll ... with the Petrograd Soviet ...

Bolshevik popularity increases in response ... Lenin concludes now is the time to take power ... lead to true socialests take over

"The repulse of Kerenskii is the confirmation of the right of the people to a pesceful free life, to land, bread, and power. There is no return tro the past. Before us are struggles, obstacles and sacrifices. But the road is clear na dvictory is certain." Leon Trotskii, People's Commissari ( Nov 12, 1917)

1917: The October Revolution
A. Upswing of Bolshivik fortunes before October
B. The armed uprising
C. Destroying the old, building the new
D. Principles vs practice: Bolshevik "Democracy"

Lenin thought that there was a way to take power ...

the Bolsheviks ...
All power to the Soviets -- a call for class war ...
membership increasing dramaticly
Leon Trotskii, pres. Petrograd Soviet ... converted Marxist ...

October Revolution over as soon as it started

What is the expected role of the Soviets ...
Lenin - only the Bolsheviks could rule ...
the Concil of the Peoples Comasars - new government
problems ...
a revolutionary party set to establisy a Socialists Party
destroying the old, to create the new ...
Lenin & the war ... wants out ...
No war, no peace ... policy ...
Germans take more territory
Lenin wants peace ... sign's treaty ... very expensive deal ...
Creating a new socity ...
The (Cheka) extrodinary commission for strugle with conter-revolution
and sabotage ... basis for today's secrete polict (KGB)
deal with counter-revolution
eliminate as much of old orginizations as possible
Seperation of Church and State (an athiests government) ...
religion as a competing idology ...
Capital moved to Masco ... 3-11-18
as a revolutionary orginicationary orginization, they needed to create
vacumes into which their own orginizations could be placed.

Revoloutionary Reforms
8 hour work day - perserve support of working class (the proletariat)
workers control - provide workers rights over control of factories etc.

Supreme Revolutionary Council ... centural control
Nationalization of Banks with others to follow ...
ownership to the people

Bolsheviks in power ... the fundamental delimma
Principal and practice
Bolshevik democracy
Fredreck Engles (Carl Marks working partner) ... "The worst posible fate to confont the leader of an extreme party is to be compled to take over the government in an epic, when the movement is not yet ripe for the domination of the class which he represents, and for the realization of the measures which the domination of that class requires. Thus the leader find himself in an inexticible delemia of what he can do contradicts his whole previous position, his principles. In the interests of his party, what he ought to do, can't be done ...

Idology committed to the future, can't respond in the present ...
Constituate Assembly ... met only once, freest election ever ...
Bolsheviks won in city, Socialists in the country, a majority ...
Lenin - Bolshevik democracy is higher than elected democracy ...

"Our central position made it possibel for us to act along internal operational lines and reduce our strategy to one simple idea: the consecutive liquidation of fronts depending on their relative importance." Leon Trotskii

Russian Civil War - Political and Military Aspects
A. Anticiipation the conflict
B. The anti-Bolshevik forces
C. Bolshevik advantages
D. Stages of the struggle

Civil War - anticipated particularly by the Bolsheviks ... Marks logical fondation ... class conflect would exist, maybe for a long time ... the October Rovolution

Lenin was convinced that the world was ready for a Socialist Revolution

Who were the anti-Bolsheviks, very complex group
  • Whites (vs Reds) - term is missleading in implication of unity, politically a
    mixture of social revilutionists, liberals, and monarchists, with officers
    of old Russian military ... unable to agree on a program that would gain
    popular support ... mixed bag
    Frequent turnover in leadearship in oppositon all over Russia ...
    no national leadership
    over and over, overthrows of White leadership ...
  • Greens ... gorolla forces .. soldiers of fortune, bandits, little more than criminals
  • Ethnic groups in opposition to Reds and Whites ... west Russia and eslewhere
  • Foreigners, in a small but critical way ... Checks stranded from WWI, allows
    Bolsheviks to claim that foreign powers are working to overthrou
    Revolution, -- British did land troups in North Russin, -- Americans also
    contributed in south Russia ... trying to get Russia re-involved in WWI

Opposition to Bolsheviks ...
Could these combined forces have prevailed over the yet unorginized
Bolsheviks? - not to be
Forces on side of Bolsheviks
  • Geography -- physically seperated opposition forces, and were concertrated
    outside of west Russia, where Revolutionary leaders were located.
    great physical distance seperated opposition from Revolutionaries
  • Orginization very difficult , opposition acting in uncoordinated manner
  • Leadership of opposition were of poor quality , unable to inspire, to
propose policies that could encourage support form
  • Ideology - seperated opposition
  • Image - public relations, not near

Bolsheviks advantages
  • dominated center of country , the heartland of Russia, where most people lived
    where industry and transpration is located ...
  • strong leadership - Lenin is a great politician, capably of evaluating, acting
    Trotskii also great leader ... critical in winning support for Bolsheviks
    and recreated army ..
    Unitified ...
  • flexibly delt with problems , ie ... in dealing with ethnic minorities, granted
    self-determination ... Lenin ... thinking that most would want to join
    a union of Soviets once they saw what was happening ...

"After carrying out the October Revolution, the working class had haped to achieve its emancipation. But the result was an even greater enslavement of the human personality." from a proclamation by the Provisional Revolutionary Committee Dronstadt Naval Base (March 8, 1921)

Civil War, Economic, Social and Cultural Aspects , 1918 - 1921
A. War Communism, civil war echonomic policies
B. The Dronstadt Uprision
C. Visions of a new world

As political leaders, Bolsheviks found themselves in charge of a government in a state of near collapse, and fighting a war with which they did not agree
  • forced them to be pragmatic
  • committed to social transformation, classless socity, without
    private property, without free market, in which everyone labored to
    their fullest in return for a reward matching their needs

Would it be pragmatism or social transformation that woudl govern policies???
sometimes one
sometimes the other
sometimes something more compilicated, or illigical
and self-imposed pressure to get on with the revolution

The worst thing got, the faster the Bolsheviks moved to transforming to a socialist socity ...

Bolsheviks Policies - War Communism ..
  • In the country side, measures (ofter confiscation) to pucure grain, orginized to
    devide the pesants along class lines ... poor, not so poor ... that somehow
    this would assist the state in getting more from those who had more
    State and collective farms were also orginized
  • In city's , large scall industries were nationalized, in effort to orginize a
    centurally controled echonomy.
  • Complete proabition on free trade.
  • Moneyless echonomy
  • Managment control of factories ... ??? backoff of worker controled

During Civil War -- a disparity between theory and practice ...
Results were not positive ... still many insisted that we should hold the line ...
World communism ...
Who was leading whom ... burcratic control increades from 1919 .. .. who
was benefiting ... promised one thing, delivered another ...
Echonomic situation growing worse ... espically in cities, in Petorgrade ...

Opposition to Revolution
Uprising - Strike by workers, joines by Navy ... in Petrograde
resulted in parting of ways between Bolsheviks and working class ...
produced subversive activities on the part of the Bolsheviks

Bolshevikism --- air to Marxism, very ideological, producing subjective judgments
exectations that world was on brink of socialists revolution ...state would wither
away, fewer and fewer bureaucrats

Revolution - radicalism - signs
  • iconoclasim, and cultural expermination ... as in art since 1900, what is normal
    should be replaced, rewirte the future, break tradiition (Molaviich) rapid
    movement form one form to another ...
  • fanicination with the machine, robots replacing men in factory, a medaphor of
    the future ... excessive intrest in psyscology, "Communism"
  • Culture should serve politics, NOT art for art sake ...
  • Ethsus of Revolutionary Liberation ... Women's movement ... "Zhenatdel"
    larger effort to free socity, the family institution need to be updated ...
    to protect rights of women and childrend ... sexual liberation ...

"When an army is in retreat, a hundred times more discipline is required than when the armi si advancing .. " Lenin (March, 1922)

Then NEP - 1921 - 1928

The "New Echonomic Policy" and the future of the Rovolution
A. NEP as strategic and disciplined retreat
B. Stuffing organized opposition
C. Lenin's illness , and second thoughts

NEP - New Echonomic Policy, a strategic and disciplined retreat, not perminent ...
  • solve pressing problems
  • necessity, deminishing returns from terror, echonomic realities, failed
    revolution in Europe
  • deminishing returns from terror,
    war communism had required a great deal of control which led to
    use of Secret Police, obsession with enemies, efforts to impose
    socialism from above ... producing critism from within leadership
    (sailors of Crunstad, Women, workers) ...
  • Echonomic Realities --- things had goten much worse ... from 1913 to 1919
    production fell to 13% of originial, cultivated land fell by 30%, yields
    down 50% ...
  • Revolution in Europe ... never happen ... expected ... that mature capitalism
    would collapse ...Lenin still believed this would happen ... Lenin thought
    his revolution could not survive without it ...

  • radial break with Bolshevik doctrin.
    - contains a relience on expertise as opposed to idiology
    - Soviets will need to learn from capitalism ... a zig-zag movement to Solialism
    - Lenin - use the capitalist, sell them the rope to use to hang themselves
    - sacrifice some of planed echonomy
    - build Socialism on capitalists base ... make concessions to peasants
  • a radical break
    - tax in kind on peasant production, free to use market to sell surpluss
    - right to own land,
    - monitary echonomy
    - free interprise, free echonomy, end to equalized wages ...
    - relationship between state and its ethonic minorities
    - Korenzatsia - allowed ethonic groups to perserve their own culture with own

NEP to free people to be more creative and more productive
  • also included policies to minimize opposition to policy
    - control of party woudl be strengthened ...
    - Lenin prohibits factionalism for sake of party unity ...

Lenin at end of his life ...
  • suffering from heart problems and brain hemorrhaging
  • illness allows him to reflect on his policiies
  • concern over state and size of bureaucracy,
  • how to create a union of soviet states with its ethonic varity
    unset with Stalin Russian sovernity and oppression
  • concerned with prematurity of revolution
  • concern with Stalin ...

"Civil war has flared up throughout Europe. The victory of Communish in Germany is absolutely inevitable. In a year Europe will have forgotten about the fight for Communism, because all fo Europe will be Communists. Then the struggle for Communism in American will begin ..." Grigorii Zinovier, in 1919 int eh Communist Internationals official magazine

Foreign Policy of Bolshevik party

Dealing with the outside Wold (1917-1927)
A. Foreign policy for world revolution
B. Foreign policy fo domestic consolidation

Lenin June 1917 "No idea could be more eronious then to seperate foreign and domentic policy."

Marxism - Socialist revolution has to come from countries with the higest devoleped capitalist governments ... EmperialRussia did not quality as an industrial poser of the first rand .... How to rationalise that the first socialist revolution occured in Russia .. ?

Lenin ... snapping the weakest link, assuming that when one broak, others would soon follow ... that if other European countries didn't have revolution, Russia would fail ...

Bolshevik launched propaganda ...
  • demorlization after WWI, provided fertile ground
  • Communists have some successes
  • in Germany ... 1919 Communists uprising ... in Hungeria, Austria ... but
    were promply suppressed
  • Lenin had breaks with the Second International
  • Third (or Communists) International ... the Commutern ... everywhere to assist
    Communists ... form International Communists Party(s) ...
  • optimism was high ... we will take the world ...

  • relationship of world communists parties to Russia, the Commutern ...
    Lenin ... wanted authority over them like over Russian Communists Party
    various parties would not submit to this
    In 1920, the Comutern - issues policy that would dominate world
    communists parties into the 1940's
  • Bolshevik - zig, zag at home, - but reject zig,zag elsewhere is ridiculous

World Wide Revolution injects new explosive element in international politics ...
  • rejected existing orginization of States
  • refusal to recognize peace as a global policy
  • challanges everybody ...
  • promise of peace and bread at home was not matched by the perceptions
    of communism arround the world

Political Issolution and Military Weakness, Bolshevik foreign policy
  • abandon expectation of proclamed in 191x ... with realities of 1920s
  • peacefull co-existance ... socialists and capitalists side by side
  • trade with capitalist world (imperialests States)
  • exploiting Capitalists expatitions one key to Soviet foreign policy

Constants in Socialests beleifs
  • Belief in the inevidability of war -
    - Constant strougle in capitalists period ... would lead to war
    - Did not fear this, but fear of capitalists threat to Soviets
    - Political and Echonomic policies to conteract a war with capitalists
  • doctrrn of Socialism in one country
    - Stalin in 1924, Bolshevik
    - Soviet demostic policy must take presedence over foreign policy
    - the work of the Commontern increassingly reflects Soviet policy

1920 Policy Complete ---
- US only major country without relation with Russia
- normal releation extablish with most of world
- no anti-Soviet reaction visiable
- an apparent success for Russia

Foreign Policy as it affects Domestic Policy
- designed for demostic consolidation, strengthen
- mechanism that State could use to focus attention on large goals, to
rally population to sacrafice to acheive
- create foreign threats to help unite population ... Capitalist Incirclement

Stop for mid-Term exam ...

"Do you want our socialist fatherland to be beaten and to lose its independence? If you do not want this, you must put an end to its backwardness in the shortest possible time and develop a genuine Bolshevik tempo in building up its socialist economy... We are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in tem years. Either we do it or we shall go under." Joseph V. Stalin, Feb 1931..

Assauting Russia's Backwardness: The third Reovlution (1) --

A. Neutralizing Stalin's opposition
B. Completing socialist construction in our country
C. The Bogey man abroad

Stalin completes his takeover of Russia ... Stalin's rise to power ...

Lenin's failing health ...
Trotski seemed to be in line to succeed Lenin ...
Stalin ... had better skils ...
NEP ...
in leadership from earilest times of revolution, 1905
People's Commasar of Nationalities,
Workers and Peasants Inspectoriate ... to make state efficient
from 1923 thru 1940, Stalin held no government posts
concentrated his efforts on dominating the party's centeral organs
Org Bureau, responsible for party discipline ..
Elected 1922 ... General Secretary of Party's Central Committee
building his power their till it rivialed the Politburo ...
He exercised absolute power over both
the Central Committee and Politburo ...
Positions allowed to decide who held office, or to help shape policy
achieved his dominance with patience and by doing the dull chores
packed committees with his own supporters, more important
used overt strategy ... supported a cult of Lenin ... making Lenin's
writtings sacred ... forever uncontestable ...oath of devotion
helped to establish Stalin's linkage with Lenin
Lenin is not just an apposile of Scientific Socialism, but a deity
Stalin would also inclurage his idiological counterparts to argue amoung
themselves, to beat each other up, leaving them in a weakened position

After Lenin's death ... Stallin used some of his associates to attack Trotsky, who felt
strong enought not to fight back, by the time he did, it was too late.
1925, Trotsky gone ... Stallin forms new allies ... against the same associates he
use to attack Trosky ...

Stalin worked to first isolate, then defeat his cheif opponests within the party
at the same time he worked to eliminate other potential leaders in the outlying
areas of country, in the ethnic areas of Russia
Lenin had promised ethnic freedom ... rasing hopes of otonomy ... but

Communism was increasingly Russian ... National Communism
Mir Said Sultangaliev, a mosulim ... represented ethnic leadership ...
arrested first in 1923 ... spoak out about theoritical issues
      1. affiation between Communism and Islam
      2. relationship between Social and National Revolution,
        espically in the backward countries in the East
      3. world of the Tata's
      saw the future of the Revolution in the East ... strength of Social unity ...
      opposed the plan of federation of ethnic units, supported by Stalin

It is the size of Russia ... USSR ... Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ...
Russia dominates all other republics ...
Sultangaliev wanted Pan-Turick republic that could have revivled Russan
Colonial Internatioal ... to help easter, backward socities

Stalin ... the Centeral
Sultangaliev chalange was too much ...
the National Communests whould have to defeat the TaTa's
1928 arrect of Sultangaliev .. led to the dismantling any alternatives to Stalinism
independent leaders were eliminated, by WWII none were left


Stalin is laying the fondation for construction of Communism in one country ...
world revolution may come, bu t Russia would proced anyway ...

NEP would have to be abandoned ... Socialism in one Country
  • centeral policy is mandatiory
  • Planing done by Working class guided by Communests party
  • who could be in charge ... a small eliete

Rapid Industralish ... needed but
too many Capitalist ideas had began to take root ... Stalin -- reverse NEP
to move country to construction of Socialism ...

How to pay the great costs ...
Vita found out how dificult this was ... who would pay ...
Russia an isolated country ... without capital
The Peasants ... could produce the surpluss needed ...
Re-orginization ... to gain surpluss ... collectivaziation ...
retrun to serfdom ... with the owner as the State ... quotas

"Tempos decide everything" Joseph Stalin, 1931

Assalting Russia's Backwardness: the Third Revolution (II)

A. Moving toward a proletairan (worker ) culture
B. Cultural revolution

1. End to Conciliation
2. Fan the flams of Class warfare
3. agressive Cultural confrontation with Russia's past
4. Appeal to vilagence aimed at uncovering enemies of people
5. Unleashing Russian youth, the new revolutionists
6. Create a social replacement for the bourgeois intelligentsia ...

What's going on ...
Struggle against class enemies ... by Stalin ... the Third Revolution
in Collectivation, the Kologs, the exploiters in the country side
in Urban echonomy, the NEP men were class enemies ...
International Communests ... also

Cultural Revolution
to establish Communests and Proletarian dominance over socity
party control over social life ...

started by Stalin ... in 1928 ... the trial of engineers .. infected by rotten liberalism
probably influenced by Europe
fight against bourgeois intelligentsia appealed to communists youth and to
radical groups that had beed supressed during NEP ...
attractive to non-communests groups (RAPP) ... League of Militant Athests
many itching for a fight ... looking to be set free from what was alread in place

Party Youth Movement
hostile to existing authority ... buracratic
scronfull of respectability
influnced by revolution
Cultural Revolution ... appeals to communists ... againsts previliged
1928, Stalin sees these forces as usefull ...

Getting rid of the established intelligencia ... means its time for Soviet intelligencia
Experts who are communests ... the Soviet Intellengical .. from the working class
Ergency to promote (500,000) workers to leadership roles ... higher education

Social Revolution was designed for a major shift ... the way society would support
communism ...

1931 ... Letter ... critical (he claims) he read ... filled with errors of interpation ...
interpataion from wront prespective ... historian
Stalin suggests that historian have to change how they treat history ... even
wether they treat a topic at all ... history was to reflect the thing of party
officials ... history was to respond to transformation to needs of party
a bolt out of the Blue ... opens door for every profession to undergo
self-anaysis ... writters, engineers, artists, ... need to contribute
to socialists transformation
Many others write expressing full support ... complaining about those not
getting the message ... people were required to keep abreast of the
parth line ... you will need to react quickly to changes to party line.
Impact was profound ... nothing excapes the creation of a party line
common purpose for everyone ...

Ethnic Diversity ... a reality of Soviet life that will not go away .. from old empire
1917 promise of self-determination ... by Lenin does start to hedge
even within ethnic groups, there isn't agreement what this freedom could mean
who is progressive ... Stalin --- it is only the working class
  • issue is not equality ... but control over people who are not Russian
    control in the same way as control in all other areas
  • end to nationalism ... Soviet = Russian ...


"When the existence of the Church is threatened, she is released for the commandments of morality. Whit unity as the end, the use of every means is sancitified, even cunning, treachery, and violence, ... For all order is for the sake of the community, and the individual must be sacrificed to the common good. " Dietrich von Nieheim, Bishop of Verden ...

1930' to outbreak of war ... the consolidation of Stalin ...

Consolidating Stalinism

A. The Seventeenth Party Congress: the eye of the hurricane
B. The Kirov assassination
C. Institutionalizing terror: the revolution betrayed
D. Developing the Stalin cult

Jan 26, 1934 --- The Seventeenth ParthCongress ...
to celebrate success of Collectavitaion ... Stalin self confidance
transforming a country to socialism
fondation of industries ... workers marching off to future ... quotas ...
peasants ... providing state with more surpluss then ever ... result of
collectivism ...
cultural revolution ... key to Stalinism ... already well established ...
  • many in attendance felt it was time to ease back a little ...
  • celebrating Stalin ... all his proposals passed unimaniously ...
  • but, many deligates were thing of how to find a replacement for Stalin ...
  • an effort to get Stalin to retire from day to day leadership ...
  • election to Centeral Commettee (responsible for larger issues)
    Stalin received fewer votes than any other candidate
    Kirov received more votes that any other ...
    similar thing happened in China with Mao ... in '60s

Stalin responds with great terror of 1936 ... affects most of those at the
17th congressof the 1,966 deligates there, over 1,100 were
perged by 1940 ...

Serge Kirov, Dec. 1935 is assinated ... (the man with the most votes) ...
  • one of the great events in Soviet history ... what it became to mean ...
  • established ground work of what society would have to endure ...

  • Kirov's bodyguard is killed in auto accident ... a few days later
  • gave Stalin exactally what he needed to purge any and all who
    stood against him ...
  • who was responsible ... a consperiency was found .... even Troski was found
    to be involved ... consperiency grows and grows ...
  • a deeper menaing .... consperiency ...
    Stalin ... the way he wanted society to understand ... consperiency was found to explain all kinds of probles affecting Soviet society ... collectivitaiton and industrialism dificulties were found to be part of a consperiency ... a deliberit subversion had occured could not be overlooked ... according to Stalin ... these were not accidential ... there was something wrong ... act of rasing questions ... make public worry ...

Stalin now calls for the utmost vigilence ... recall ID cards and reissued ... confess to errors ... opposition ... Soviet Union ... men, who for no appearent reason were now being brought before athorties and questioned about all sorts of things ... guity, who could know, how could you not ask, how were people who worked with such men supposed to responed ... could you defend a friend ... became more and more dificult

This presented a delima to Soviet society ... the peoples were frozen in utter confusion ... This could not have served Stalin better ... society was being transformed into a group of poeple with no sence of community ... confussion ... new and shocking revolution daily ... left them with dependence on one man ... "Darkness at Noon"

Soviet Union ... population no longer has it own idenity ... meaning of Kirov ... Stalin wanted the society to get ... to see enemies every where ... in every ... in every ... your task was to help the party in rooting out these enemies ...

During the process ... Stalin the oppoturnist ... seized this oppurnity ... as it unfold, he finds more oppurnities to inhance and perserve his own position ... '35 '36 ... after with the great purgers ... unfolds as series
techniques that the state can use to strengthen its position
    • investagation techniques for Kirov ... will work well in any investagation
    • use of the media ... Stalin uses it to shape public openion ... m
    • using foreign enemies to influence demostic affairs
    • the BIG lie ... comes to its fullest meaning ... what ever is said by the
      leadership is what counts ... and they can say what ever they want
      no one can refute ...

Terror becomes an institution
  • Show trials ... of old party members sentenced to death .. only the tip of iceburg
  • no one could excape the purge, 70% of people in control just disappeared
  • anyone could be guilty ... many confessed because they thought it was
    for the good of the party ...
  • 1930's became a great betrayal of the October Revolution ... Stalin's
    authority was to be obeyed, not challanged ...
  • what ever was left in Soviet Socity that was revolutionary was a shadow
    of its farmer self, a shadow without substance.

"Only fools can imagin we would ever break with Germany ... No one can give us what Germany has given us. For us to break with Germany is simply impossible." Karl Redek, 1934

Impact of WWII

The Great Patriotic struggle at Home and Abroad (I)

A. Nationalism as a substitute for revolution
B. The German threat
C. Instititionalizing terror: the fevolution betrayed
D. Developing the Stalin cult

Terror as an adminsitration techique ... the logical extension of Stalin's policies since 1920's ... insured that Stalin would continue to rule ... produced the contradicition of revolution ... opression ...

Stalin's fear of backwardness ... but ended with expecting displain displain displain ...

Aug 30, 1935 ... Aleksen Stalanhof ... miner ... non-party member ... mines 102 tons of coal instead of required 7 in one day ... as if he had done this all on his own ... selflessness ... a workers initiative ... quota's are increased ... Stalanhits ... the new elette ... given special awards ...
it became appearent that this was a set up, to give reason to break quota, and to establish new ones ...

More oppression ... order ... disiplane ...

The new woman ... was the old woman ... divorse was difficult ... aboration outlawed

Process underway was designed to eliminate the liberations of the October Revolution
liberation could not be tolerated ...

Stalinism was a new religion ... demanding a new sperit ... for thier their own good as determined by Stalin ...

Marxism -- Stalinism ...

Demestic and Foreigh policy ... Foreign policy can only be free when Demostic seigh is calm ...

USSR and Germany ...
  • 1920 foreign policy success with Germany ... normal relations ...
  • common interests ...
    both wanted Poland ...
    common opposition of treaty of Versi
    need for each to break out of political isolation
    benefit of cooperation
    potential use this relationship, get better deals from Brittan and France

Military Cooperation
  • July 1922 ...
  • contract to build aircraft factory
  • joint experiments in poison gass

Political influences
  • recognizes Socialists government
  • textbook example of successful explotation of capitalists contradictions ...

Hitler and the Nozis
  • a direct overt threat to Sovients
  • Hitler always attacking Bolshivks
  • arrested communests
  • pushing east for more land

Stalin responed by seeking new relationship with western countries ... wants to join League of Nations, negociates with France, and US ... diferent policies then before Hitler. Communtern ... 1934 orders communests to fond new relationship between communests and of the progressive forces ...

Stalin Constitution ... 1936 ... rights and liberties neas US constitution.

Stalin increasing concerned with Germany, Italy, and Japan, and lack of western response ...

Aug 1939 ... stunning turnabout ... reaches agreement with Hitler ... many felt betrayed... Stalin's complete denial of nationalism ... Hitler invades Poland, WWII begins, Russian troops move into western Polan ...
Stalin, for his own survival, self determined nesessary, Stalinism itself made the German pact necessary ... an immoral pact, Stalin insists pact was unbreakable ...

War echonomy is started with construction of military supplies ... war for Stalin seemed an abstraction ... Stalin went to obserd length to insure that he did not expect a break with Germany ... even in not securing his western borders .... through which Germany would invade ...


"This war is not as other wars: Whoever occupies a territory in this war imposes his own system as far as his army can reach." Joseph Stalin to Miovan Djlas

The Great Patrotic Struggle at hove and abroad (II)

A. Defying military disaster
B. Forging a political victory

Hitler invades Russia ... Jun 22, 1941 - ignoring Naizi Soviet pack
Great success, fast advance, many captures, some people feel liberated
Hitler big error, was to fail to see Masco as an important goal ...
mistreating POW's and civilians with equal cruelity ....
likely ... failier to take Masco in December ... Germans had already lost ...
next year, Hitler revfusing to give up Leningrade is another big mistake ...

Russia's Eastern front affected outcome of WWII as much as anything else ...
Russiia paid heavest cost of all 21 millilon killed, 38% of ALL losses
life, property, ... Soviet System has to accept blame of much of this loss
military commanders ... lacked courage to make field decissions
count less dedicated Soviets who had contact with invaders would
be shipped off to Soviet prisons ... for no good reason ...

Russia at home ... for 4 years ...
Stalin ... had locked himself up for 11 days at start of German invasion
Stalin was deeply depressed
Finally sepaks, not as commrads, as brothers and sisters, not as a socialiest
once again Stalin was calling of Love of Homeland, appeal to Nationlism
Great Patrotic Struggle for the Father land ... for Mother Russia (Uncle Sam)
new nationalism and reduction in controls over Religion, and other oppressions

patrotic service
Stalin meets with church leaders and authorities ... allows clergy school
Hero's dredged up from History

Political Considerations
Russia's role in post war world ... Russia is weak compaired to other allies
Want's second front opened fast, recognization of Soviet authority over
occupied lands
Stalin - lack of second front, his mistrust of US and England grows ...
he projected his own beliefs in how he thought of Chruchill & Roosevelt
Poland ... summit in Iran ...

1944 ... Soviet military strategy is linked to political goals
aimed to occupy as much of eastern Europe as possible ..

Yalta ... re-inforces processes already underway ...

"Yes, it is true, comrds. I am a coarse fellow." Joseph Stalin 1925

After the War

A. Domestic reconstruction
B. Domestic retranchment, old system
C. Foreign expansion

Soviets face enormace task of reconstruction after WWII
much pain would be endured to rebuild
30,000 factories destroyed
70% railroads destroyed
1 million city dweling gone
3 million in country side ...

Where do we go
Stalin ... the most important man
Feb 9, 1946 ... address to Supreme Soviet
many there felt that some mistake of past were behind them and
thankful for Stalin's victory over Germany
Stalin had anticipated that Russia and Germany would someday fight that war
and part of the reasion behing industrial buildup was in anticipation of
such an event ...
Many expected that the relaxation during WWII would continue to be Stalin's
policy ... softening of politics ... softening of demands on people ... rush
to the future, at last the Socialists road would be smoother than before
fruits of labor and sacrafice could be enjoyed.
Stalin - begins by addressing everyone as Commrads (not Brothers & Sisters)
outlines a course that would not be diffirent than before ...
you must have senseless dreams ...

Why revert to pre-war policies
WWII was not an accident, logical development of capatialism ... war did not end
capatalism ... global seign has not changed ...
WWII allience was tempoary ...
conflect between socialism - capitalism wwould continue
war proved that Soviet Social system was victorious, better
social orginization than any non-Soviet system
war proved that Soviet State system was victorious
war proved value of Soviet system
Stalin states it would be dangerious to change this system

Orginize a new mighty serge in Soviet echonomy ... three five year plans
long period of dedication ... before we can experiexce fruits of our labor
Stalin had pulled another fast one ... management of peoples emotions
renders himself indespensible ... all wise, all powerful
proclaim Stalin unique persion, without whom country would be lost, no future
Stalin is god ... all powerful, un-erroring
Books, statuce, by the millions, more that anyone could want ... irrational
extrodnay public compaing, Stalin unable to do wrong ...
making of a god ...
beyond human discorse ... Stalin wached over all

Task of Reconstruction
falls on countryside, as before in '30 and '90 with Count Vita ...
Soviet Peasants must pay the price again, 3rd time in 100 years
Spoils of war, whole factories ... only a one time infussion of capital
Curency reform ... results in absorbing any excess capital ... little trust in banks
forced to exchange 10 for 1 ... turn it in, or worthless ... prices were stady
Agriculture, collectivazation restored, low state prices restored, dropped,
commodity prices razed
PEASANTS caught in vice ...

Stalin declines standard of living, reapping a bonanza for the state ...

Renewed Cultural Offensive
to overcome relaxation during war
Socialists realize to be the rule, immitation of foreign models suppressed
Nationalism merged with ideaology
Prolaterian offensive, attack on cosmopolinitism ... Stalin's attitude on Jews
Jews as a people, were involved in conspericy against state
growing critizism of Israel
Scientific Charalitism ... people willing to say anything for Stalin ...
hero's of Soviet Science

Where the country is going ...
Truth and reality have become false and surreal


"We profoundly beleive that the Central Committee of the Communists Party of the Soviet Govenement with Commarade Malenkov at its head will undoubtdly be able to cintinue the work of Comrade Stalin" Mac Zedong March 12, 1953

The early Post-Stalin Years 1953 to 1957

A. Stalin's death and the apparent insecurity of the new leaders
B. Khrushchev's emergance as party leader

Stalin in last year of life
was about to start another purge
cultural offensive ... criticism of cosomopolitism ... anti-semitism

Return to pre-war policies
fantistic conspeicies .. involving foreign policies, new state of Israel and Zionism
another phase of conspericy, enemies of the people, and foreign intrigue, with
conditions of cold war, began to receive massive public attention
The Doctors Plot ... ploters were 9 doctors careing for high officials
7 were jews ... ultimate goal was to eliminate high officials ...

Stalin dies March 5 ... a stroak of luck
mix of genuine sorrow ... with worry and confusion of leadership ...
how would the population respond

New Leadership committed to Stalinists goals wanted to accomplish them without
Stalinists methods ... a modist accomendation ... modist rasing of standard
of living ...

How leadership would maintain their own positions and accomendate
How to extablish the old guard ... move to demote relative new commers
Troca ... Molenkov, Prime Minister. Beria - Security Chief,
Molotov as Foreign Minister ... take formilar names ... continuation in leadership

Post Stalin .... Leadership
Not certain of how people would respond ...
two day delay in announcing Stalin's death
call for unity of leadership ... and calm ... Masco ringed with security
some old leaders re-abilitated ...
Pravada ... fake phothgraph showing Stalin with Mow, and Molenkov
trying to create a line of leadership
decleation of amnisty ... for Stalinists crimes ... 5 years or less
Doctors plot none existant ...
revised criminal code ...
imporve standard of living, reducing food prices,peasant taxes
announcment in news of increase in productivity
things would get better ...

Attacks on Security orginizations
an attempt to make Security scapegoat for Stalin abbuses ...

Internationally ... concern that Stalin had gone too far
US policy leaning to rolling back communism and not just denfense (nuclar)
Eastern Europe ... problems ...
something needs to be done to change image
cancel claims on Turcky land
Iran ... frendship
restore deplomatic relations with Israel
more friendly toward US and China
Stop exploiting East Europe
Russia opens up ... leaders start foreign travel, cultural exchange

Beginning of process to re-establish basic socialists goals
material well being, security

elected to post of First Seceturay in 1953
seemed to be leader of lesser suggnificant, not as forcefull as others
only leader formiluar with countryside
turnes out to be more enterprising and more inclined to make sugnifficant
changes than anyone expected him to be
whthin one year he had replaced moe than half of regional Secretaries
with men of more compentance
Echonimic expertese became more important than connections to leadership

Feb 1956 - Secret speach --- on Stalin and cult of individual
recalls deligates back at mignight ... for 4 hours ...reveals Stalin
abuses ... assulting burarchy, forcing party to reevaluate policies
Cult of person of Stalin ... before 1934, after 1934 ... carefull distinction
Stalinism ... Leninism ... Lenin left out
real revolution still valid ...
Help launch great leap forward ... catch up to US

"Hair-brained schemes, half-backed conclusions and hasty decisions and actions, divorced form reality: bragging and bluster, attraction to rule by flat un willingness to take into account what science and proctical experience have already discovered .. " Pravda editoria (October 15, 1964)

The Ascendancy of Khrushchev (1957 - 1964)

A. Domestic trands
B. Internation trends
C. Ploting Khrushcev's ouster

'57 Secret Speach
designed to launch greap leap forward ... to surpass the West ...

Problem of making better use of intellectually ...
nature and degree of intelectual freedom ...
Khrushchev speech tells the truth ... but how much truth could be told
hopes to inllist help to overtake the west ...
not freedom ...
contradiction to premit freedom, creatativity, ...
prevent demand for concessions
Khrushchev ... at art exhibit ... you can't go too far ... an authoritial leader

Great leap forward ...
restructuring first order of business ...
transfer of management out of Masco ... undo Centeralized managment
involving masses much more than the past ...
in party decisions ... opens public openion ... unpresident ...
pardox ... oneness -- less control

Foreign Policies
as much calm as posible abroad
West - peaceful coexistance become policy ...

China ...
Internation Communism splits --- no longer unified ...
by 1958 - Rusia China no longer together
both had achieved ability to experiment with society
each had been rulthess in dealing with population
so demostic policies had limited range of options in dealing with each other
the success of each required different / opposit international claiments
Russia needed peaceful coexistance ... needed to invest heavly
needed internation traid
China - peaceful coexistance contray - west needs to be constantly
confronted ... military strength with readness to use it
Mao and Khrushcev grew to dislike each other ... personally ... both tackless
lacked understanding of the other's socity
by 1959 - China and Russia loss any working realtionship

plot to oust ... in 1964 ... successful in November
first leader remove with out dying ...
Reality that his liberalizing moves had antaganized many important
people. Pravada ... hair brained schemes ... ruling by decre ... would
not take into account of what sceince had already proved.
1959 failure in Beaf industry ... didn't thing through how this would work
a series of such failiers
Failes agracultural compaign ... 54 - 60 failed
Corn failed ...
industrial compatition ... without reform failed
education ... students shouldn't just study books, should go to work
learn on the job
Military - reduced budgit ...
Foreign Policy failiers, Cuba Missle Crisis, UN General Assembly shoe

27 Nov 94

"Communists in fraternal countries could not allow themselves to remain inactive in the name of an abstract principle of sovereignty while watching one of their number fall into the process of antisocialist degeneration." Provada editoral, explaining the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 ...

The Years of Stagnation: The Brezhnev Regime (1964-82 )

A. THe end of revolutionary process (?)

B. Ambiguity aborad

The Brezhnev years signals the end to the Revolutionary process by mid 1960's
The idealized goals of the revolutionary were broadly accepted as the idology of a well established authortian government. Communism had come to mean unchallanged parthy control, international security, internal social security and the promis of contuning material well being.
The state party had gained maximum control over allocation of capital, and unpresident capasity to regulate the means of production in Soviet socity, as well as the distribution of income.
A one party system to maintain the wellfair of all, without the ability of the population to influenct the party's decisions.

The removal of Khrushchev, did not change the Communist party's vision of Socialism, but his methotds were rejected --- a revolt of the priesthood against the high priest.

The Brezhnev Regime
Liberalazation and d-Stalinazation will be kept in very safe bounds
Brezhnev was a perfect party functionary, quiet, steady, did not try to develop Socialist theory and was not an expert in any disiplain of the government functions. Reliable, with the ability to give orders with out expertise.
Worked closely with Khrushchev

Changes Insituted
Reversed decentraliziation in party and in industry
Established many new ministries
a pull back from Khrushchev personell changes ... a return to normalacy ...
a reversal of policy, examples
in the Sicences ... removing the charalatins ... to allow for narmal research
in education ... a reduction in the number of industrial schools
in the Arts ... a more consistant approach,
in Defeance ... increase in troops and weapons, increase in Nave and its presents around the world ... a show of strength ...
in Foreigh Policy ... abondonment of ultermatoms, a more carfulll approach, limited ... controled,
Stalin ... mixed signals, maybe a partial reabalitation, many express concerns with this approach ... so only indirect and symbolic changes
      • a retrun to General Security ... easily understood
      • a return to Polotburo
      • halt in anti-Stalin literature ... and defenders of Stalin given freedom to do so ...
      • Stalin is now an outstanding party leader who had made some mistakes
      • a return to persecution and show trials ... for publishing abroad, to tighten control on interlectuals, and limist on creative freedom,

Dissidents ... after Stalin hoped that greater interlectual freedom could help to weaken Stalin opression
  • This is exactlly why Brezhnev Regime sought to control Dissidents
  • Three foarms ...
  • The Literary, --- the deomocratic ... letter and partition writters, an underground orginization of publishing, Committees to defend human rights, included Leninists,
  • Ethnoic minoritits defence ... (The Tatar's) trying to reclaim its own histroy, its right to return home, pushing for changes in policy
  • Religious ... a growing self-confidence ... Orghodox, Islam, Jews, and Christans

Foreighn Policy ... some ambiguity ... a prusit of help from US because of farm grain failiers.

"Tighten up discipline." The basic slogan of the Andropov period.

The Andropov and Chernecko Interregnums

A. Andropov, setter of new paths (?)
B. Chenenko: caretaker of the old guard
C. The advent of Gorbachev

Post Brezhnev Regime .... died in 1982 ... had succeed at a steep price, crop failiers, graft, public listlessness and alcholism increased, and the military threat by new US missels in Europe.

Andropov (farmer KGB chief - best informed of all leaders), Andrei Gromyko (Foreign Minister), ... were concerned with these problems
  • Andropov succeeds in replacing Brezhnev, although he held power for only one year (failing health) he managed to get USSR started on a new path.
    • New Policy's ... disiplain of party officials, better work habits, less drinking, less absenteeism ...
      • echonmic experment to decentralize planing, giving managers the ability to make dicesions normally made by burorchacy
      • new law to form collectives to give industrial works a say in managment decisions
      • re-introduced the term "Glasnost", meaning public openness, an old word used by Lenin ... more Glasnost is need in the party.

Tatiana Zaslarskaia -- a report on Soviet echonomy ... to closed audiance ... leaked to foreign press ... linked Soviet echonomic problems to cultures established in the Stalinist '30s ... central state management and restrictions on peoples echonomic rights and responsibility for results, and restrictions on people's informal echonomic activities. By 1930's it was a criminal offense to miss work ... a system that failed to motovate workers , indifference to work performed. Low value attached to labor, A system that penalizes initiative, and rewards obediance ... follow order from above ...

Changes are needed, but will surely be challanges by those who would be affected ... the obediant follower of orders from above ... the officials of echonomic ministery ... officials at higher leverls in fear of echonomic insentatives,

Andropov , did little with the above report, but his major contrabutions came in the political appointments he made. He deliberated sought out able officials who were dissatisfied with the current statis quo of a failed echonomic policy.

Many appointment were made from this group of people to high policy positions

Greatest effect was the choice of Mikhail Gorbachev as sucessor to be ... was impressed by his commit to change and 1) an ability to analyze problems and 2) ability to deal with them

with Konstantine Chernonko death in 1985, after only a short time as leader, the consertives make on last ditch effort to cling to power ... the old guard nominated Greshen for top position but it foailed.

Mikhail Gorbachev -- a pessant, studied law in Mascow, 20 years worked up policitcal latter ... earned second degree in agraculture ... came to Masco in 1978 to lead dept of agraculture, and youngest member of Prolotburou ... General Securith in 1985 ... reveals himself as voice for change ... calls for new state of policy, in broader sence of the word ...

Echonomic reform ... reduce size of administration, a new mensitry to replace five ministry ... freeing 1000's to take jobs closer to production... attacks
Alcohol abuse ... reduces production, and distribution, establishs temperance society, party officials would have to be models for society, reduces health costs, and failed marriages

A Conserative in the sense ... His world view ... responisbility is within the individual, to use reform to perserve the Soviet system

By 1986, Gorbachev had succeed in placing a large many new reform minded people at all levels of Government ... but still ... he did not alway receive support for policy changes ... at low levels in burarcy though many were still many left over from the Brezhnev years ... and it would not be easy to bring these people onto the side of reform ...

By 1970 it was clear ... the Soviet Union was in serious trouble ... and it was clearly Andropov that put into place the leaders that might be able to deal with these problems ... those who could accept the need for reform ...

Ethnoic Miniorities ... still unable to express their greavences ... were not finding some outlets

Forgign Policy ... Afganastin ... problems in eastern Europe ... and the US ... Reagan investing capital, pushing the arms rece, forcing Andropov and Gorbachev to reacess their society...

"I Don't know anything, and don't care. I'm just a little person trying to buy some bread. " an old man on the streets of Moscow, Sept ... 1991)

Gorbachev's Ascendancy
A. Acknowledging reality in the USSR
B. Defining a program of salvation : Gorbochev's plan
C. Gorbachev outraced by developments from leader to follower, action to reaction

In a speach to the party congress ...

1) The state of Soviet Union is unsatisifactory ... Gorbochev
at the truning point for years, but nothing was done ... the party was stagnet ... its huge burarchy could not be moved ... it sought change without changing anything ...

2) The Echonomy ... a radical reform is needed ... that it would take time and effort ... no guarantee against mistakes ... it will take time ...
  • a shift from extensive to intensive growth ... grow existing industry, not new
  • an end to the process of interfearing in the day to day operaiton of echonomic units
  • making industries self sustaining ... would not be bailed out
  • interprises could sell surpluss output, and unneed equiptment
  • price would be an active intrament of echonimic and social policy
  • a shift from admisistrative to echonomic methods of managment throughout the echonomy ... increasing opportunicy for decisions to be made for actuall echonomic reasions and not by some burocrat located in Mascow far away from production ...
  • an effort to have State planning commission to focus on long range planning and not short term ...
  • a new policy ... losses by unproffitable interprisal reagons would no longer be underwritten by well functioning ones

3) Agraculture --- Reform
  • Key to success is to give people incentive to work actively, an inclination to inovate.
  • Widespread use of contract system where plots of state land are alotted to work teams for a period of time -- an old Khrushcev plan
  • a tax in kind ... fixed for five year period, and peasants could sell any surplus that they produced.

4) An attack on Stalinism ...
Cooperatives should become widespread ... in housing, in other idology ...
Ministries, departments, and teritory organs are not proprotors of means of production (owners) but mearly state administrators ... resopnsible to socity

5). Link Echonomic reforms to social policy, a principal of social justice ... to use wealfair to provide incentives, raise pensions, better housing, better public participation in decesion making must be made meanfull

6). New Thinking in Foreigh affairs ... global policies such as the environment, interdependenc of states, moving away from a CLASS approach to foreign policy. Deplomacy is for dialog, not confrontation ... US relations was based on national interests ... typical of any nation ... it allows him to presue relations based on mutual security.

What were some of the causes of Soviet problems ... what approach will he take, what limits does he face???
The Causes
  1. Pracitice, but not principal ... CHIEF ... the basic principals of revolution are valid ... he beleived ... practice is what needs to be changed, not principal. where should we be going ...
  2. The revolution of 1917 ... a Leninists ... what he preached ... were still usable today ... that Stalin had perverted Lininism ....
    ... these put limits on what Gorbachev is able to do in making reforms ...
  3. important to understand ... is a great tactision, but not sucessful a strategyests .... a long term policy ... what is it??? the plan was vage, his unwillingness that maybe principal needed to also be reformed

Gorbachev's Plan
  1. Uskorenie - a policy of excellerated and rapid growth ... a general stratagy, a new quality of growth, a structural reform of labor ... this is a radical break
  2. Perestroika - is the means to obtain Uskorenie ... the process of change ... restructing or radical reform ... this is a major theoratical restrcuting of social relatrions to provide to basis of a comprehensive reform program ... that had been underway since 1983 with changes made by Andropov leadership

- Perestroika designed to resolve contradictions between group and class interests ...an attitude ... mobolizing stratagies

  1. Individual and group interests including and accountability and independence (Khozraschet) ... the underlinging principal ...
  2. public criticism and access to information (Glasnost) makes litigament group interests ... public views ... and not the old centeralized control of media etc.
  3. Democracy (deomkratiia) ... transforming participation in decession making ... to place more responsibility with individuals ... involve the masses in public affairs, to restrict power of political leadership ..
  4. Law and control ... move to leagal state, citizens with guaranteed rights governed by rule of low
  5. retrenshment Internationally ... cooperation and mutual trust, disarment, reductidon in internation tension .... would have to allow eastern European states more controll of their own governments

Perestroika as a stratagy has undergone changes

  1. it involved a sociologal campeign to alert society to the need for change ... to overcome ineritial ... anti -compaigns (Acholo, etc
  2. personal policy to bring people into authority who supported new policy
  3. a new style of leadership, more direct, more honest, more open, and involved public participation
  4. a set of reforms introduced over many industries, health, education, almost all aspect of Soviet life

Gorbachev put these reforms in place, but he did not control them ... his greatness was that he was able to adapt himself to the changes that took place with skill and flexability ... even if sometimes he was late in doing so ... he kept extrealests form distroying each other, Gorbachevhad to adopt some undignified positions, and to alay himself with some distastefull factions, the future cou leaters ... real importance ... he created new instituritons that the long suffering peoples of the Soviet Union could use to express themselves. Gorbachev was the catalist for change ...

4 Dec 94

"The moral enslavement of a population is achieved not when people on a substantial part of them give credence to official ideology, but when they are plunged into despair" Leazier Kblakowski, a Polish philospher and critic of Marxism 1979

The Force of Reality in the USSR
A. Socio-eonomic considerations
B. Spiritual considerations

Socio-eonomic considerations
  1. Decline in productivity
    progress to full socialism required a quantim leap in production to acheice a standard of livieng unequaled
    a system that had built itself echonomicly to be the equal to any other country in many fields (space, heavy industry, ) could not supply its own population with the basic necessities of life
    worse yet, During Brezhnev era, had reached its maximum lever and had began to decline, could not motivate it people to additionls levels of production. ... the lost work day ... standing in line ... there is a large amount of wasted time ... few people worked hard ... what can possibly be produced with such a lack of productivity ...
    Soviet people discovered that they didn't have to work, not even to earn their bonuses

  2. In-equaity of Centralized Management
    Centralized planning since 1920's was bound to result in lost production,

  3. Difference in the Rhetoric and Reality of access to oppurtunities
    what was said, opposed to what could be done ... a proplem of access to goods and services ... many stores were special, reserved for certain classes ... a special system of access existed ... a dual system ... everyone knew, but few talked about ... it created access for a few, but denied access for most. A class society had developed.
    Health Care ... also showed these differences ... the very nature of the system ... by '70s some evidence that general and infant mortality coupled with a decreace in life expecency ... why ... acholism rampid, heart desease - poor diet, low in fruit and vegetables, high in fat, ... polution because of miss use of pestazides and emissions from industrial plants, nucular problems ... high accident rate on job ... for a country of the first world (not the third world). The Medical System itself was flawed ... with quanity not quality of care stressed, poor pay for medical personal ... shortabe of medical supplies ... insenetive to paitents needs ... infant food and desease, and widespread use of aboration ... six aborations per women

  4. Institutionalizing of an Elite in Soviet Society
    Nomenklotura ... the Soviet Elite, party official, the intelegencia, interprise managers, malitary, ... money is the least important of their reward ... it was not likely, because of the Soviet system, that people would have much money ... what they got was secondary benefits i.e. part-time jobs (don't have to work), wife with special jobs, Blot - influence, contact with the right people, who can get special things done.

Spiritual considerations
Communism itself - an idology that was turned into a religion, but it made life steral, left people hollow ...

Ethnec Minorities ... increasely dismayed, looking for a way out

"During the past two years, my sense that an explosion was imment grew ever stronger." Edward Shevazdnadze writting after the August coop attempt

An examination of the great "August Revoluton" .... 1991

A. Triumph of August, 1991 over October, 1917
B. Making the creeping coup
C. Winter 1991: the creeping coup gathers momentum
D. March days

The new Revolution had won out over the October Revolution ... an indictment of the Bolschevics ...

What was involved in August 1991 ...
a coop attempt ... against Gorbachev
the Right wing of the military, had mysterios army manovering around Mascow
this was followed by mysterious meeting between Gorbachev and leanders of the military industrial complexes ... forced Gorbachev to back off of his 500 day plan.
this was just the beginning of the pressure (Nov 1990) being put on Gorbachev
Gorbachev made some changes to leaders of government ... inflused by the right military ....
sighn in Baltic Republic crack down ...
Dramatic announcment by Edward Shevardnadze , Foreign Minister, resigns ...in a telivised speach ... gives reason that he is concerned about the return of dictatioship to Soviet Union ...

What is Gorbachev thinking ... Why is he doing this ... motives
An opportunests ... a politican, interested in staying in power, doesn't want to walk away form most powerfull job in USSR
Personal servival ... concerned with his role in history, critical because only a few people at the top can follown thruogh with his reforms. Beleives he has much to contribute
MOST important ... genuine principal ... what he truely beleives
    1. preserve party unity - committed to servival of Comm, a party likely to be blaimed for anything and everything ... committed
    2. perserve Socialists property ... the ideals of socialisy, a political and social philosophy ... a belief in socialism as an echonomic principal, distribution of benefits to everyone ...
    3. to perserve the UNION, the USSR ... where he lived ... because the alternative was too outragous to conveive ...
      SUMMARY, genuion principals that Gorbachev is committed to

The Creeping Coop ...
Jan'91 - the Baltic States, shocking brutality used by military on civilian demonstrators ... Gorbachev seems not sympathetic ...
Unusual statements from Right wing of party ... Western aid to Soviet aid is designed to destabilize USSR, it is some kind of plot by west ... KGB accuses CIA of using free market idiology to undermine Russia ...
Reflects growing fear by the Right ...
Use of Military to patrol Mascow streets
Government will compensate Rubels in denomination > 50 rubles ... too much money not in circulation ...
March'91 - events ... Gorbachev creats a National Security Council that includes several that participate in comming coop ...
Efforts within Communists party to impeach Yeltson, who turns around and orginizes (agains ) a demonstaration in th streets in his support, strikes around country in support of Yeltson, calling for Gorbachev's resigination
Gorbachev is beginning to loose control ... shifts away from the right to try to maintain some control ...
April 23, 9 + 1 agreement, capitulates to the left allowing autonomy

"Maybe now we can become a normal country." A Moscow office worker, Septerber 1991.

The events of the great August Rovolution, the end of USSR

A. Panic within the RIght
B. Gathering momentum of the Left
C.Vacations and coups
D. THe final act
E. Fizzle, but no sizzle: why the coup failed?
F. After the coup

The Creeping coop ...
the Soviet Right ... showing signs of concern, even panic ... a demand of decree power ... says that the country is facing an eminent disaster, and that Gorbachev is responsible ... an effort to focus to blaim, take no responsibility ... to focus blaim on the left ...
Gorbachev could have fired >>>>> but failed to take advantage
the Left ... more democratic ... begain to gather momentum ... Union Treaty is pressed by Yeltsen ... is close to disolving the USSR itself ... (July )
Gorbachev abroad trying to get assistance ... fails to get a bargin from west ...

Gorbachev's new platform
replaces Marxism and Leninism with a vague new idiology a "hemane and democratic socialism" moving beyond his old positions, questioning Leninism ... is there any value ... a long way from Leninism ...
proposes new party congress in Sep'91 ...
August '91, Gorbachev on vacation ... a relationship between coop's and vacations ...
The final act ... the coop ...

Why did they move?
a beleif that only a state of emergcy could stave off the collapse of the party, the echonomn and of the Union ... they couldn't convense Gorbachev to declair an emergency, or to take power themselves ...
hope that Gorbachev would move agian to the Right
concern over scheduled signing of new Union Treaty at end of August 20, its own deadline

The Coop
August 18 ... Gorbachev is pressed to move, after his phones are cut ... given an ultermatum, sign declaration of emergency ... or resign ...
Gorbachev is declaired to be incapacitated ...

Failed in three days ... Why ....
Yeltson ... when the moment came, many in the army and KGB failed to head call ... because Yeltson presented an alternative position, a different call to their aligence ... a source of authority, the first popularly elected president of Russia ... many saw the new force as more an authority than the Communists Party
The Ineptitude of the Soviet leadership who planned the coop, they failed to the fullest to do their jobs ... the plotters were out of touch ... they failed to understand the popularity of Yeltson ... failed to understand their own irrelevance ... failed to get cooperation of military outside of Mascow ... the plotters failed to get cooperation of other Rightest groups ... Leaders botched their efforts in every way
The System the coop plotters were trying to protect was so corrupt and bankrupt it couldn't be saved ...

Democratic supporters seemed to have made some preprations in advance ... called for the restoration of Gorbachev ... because he had been ellected, a government in exile was set up very quickly ... decrees were issued very quickly .... suppend the Communists Pary and the publication of Pravda ... teams of young leaders replace established intelegencia.

Since the coop ....
  • a great turning point ... prospects for another civil war were resisted ... for the first time in the history of Russia
  • party declaired illegal, possestions seized ... the Communists Soviet Union went out of existence ...
  • political events ... the speed was unexpected, it took only days for the Union to disolve, for the party to collapse ... all by Sept 5 ... 1917 -1991 ....
  • root cause ... Gorbachev could not reform because he could not change the party ... tried to revitalize the economy ... then the party ... this was fercely risisted. THE END >>>