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Civil War and Reconstruction

Dr Joseph E Logston 9:00 - 11:45 Saturday ED 106 George North Fall 1993
History 4506 - Civil War and Reconstruction
9:00  - 11:45 Saturday
ED 206

Dr Joseph Logsdon
Office, ED168: 

	Fifty Civil War Documents, Henry Commager
	Lincoln and the First Shot, Richard Current
	Ordeal by Fire, James McPherson
	Crucible of Reconstruction, Ted Tunnel

8/28/93 9:00  

Micshell 393-0376

Midterm Exam, Oct 2nd

Last day of class, Nov 20

Final Exam, Dec 4 - 2 parts (50/50), 5 of 7 or 7 of 10 single paragraph
answers, Essay questions from the last page of syllabus, answer 1.

	I.	Sociology of the Old South	McP: 1-41

	II.	Separation of the Sections	McP: 42-149

	III.	Military Operations	McP: 153-259,
	302-342, 410-435

	IV.	Union  Politics and War Aims	McP: 260-278.
	343-367, 393-409

Mid-Term Exam:  October 2

	V.	Formulation of Reconstruction Policy	McP: 491-547
	Tunnell: 1-91

	VI.	Republican Governments in the South	McP: 548-580
	Tunnell: 95-172

	VII.	Counterrevolution	McP: 581-598
	Tunnell: 173-218

	VIII.	Sociology of the New South	McP: 599-609

Last day of class: November 20

Final Exam: December 4
August 29,

Causes of Civil War ...
	* Slavery 
	* Union did not fight to end slavery
	* Confederacy start war to protect slavery

Questions to be answered

1) Why did slave holders not Change Alter Abolish slavery.
2) Why did non-slave holders not Change Alter Abolish slavery.
3) Why did the slaves not Change Alter Abolish slavery.
4) Why did the nation as a whole not Change Alter Abolish slavery.
5) Why did the union not let the Confederacy go in peace?

Question 2 -
	* the south was not a monolithic society , opposition to slavery came from
back country of south, as opposed to the tidewater country.  In the old south,
the tidewater country was near the east cost, as far up river as could be
traveled by boat. The back country, west of tidewater, were mostly poor whites,
non-slave owners.
	* anti-slavery institutions totaled about 106 in old south, first
established in:
	Kentucky, 1808
	Tennessee, 1814
	North Carolina, 1816
	Maryland, 1817
	Virginia, 1823
	* Slave holders began counter attack about 1819 thru 1830, 1819 was the
beginning of the first national depression.
	* Slave holders began blaming problems on others
	* John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died in 1826, July 4
	* 1819 marked the beginning of the superiority argument, whites better than
	* Populations began moving west into the new south, and to lands west of
the Mississippi, the steam boat made it possible using the Mississippi river to
move goods to market, cotton became king. Slavery spread to new territory(s). 
	* Cotton

All these led to a decline in the south of anti-slavery sentiments. 

	* Nat Turrner

Question 3.  Why did the slaves not Change Alter Abolish slavery?
	* Severity of social control, unbending force, no intervening institutions
	* Demographics, the percent of non-slave population to slave was higher in
the south, than in other parts of the world.
	* Revolt is a complex act, most repressed peoples just live with it, and
convincing others to join a revolt is not easy.
	* The borders between slave and non-slave states made it possible for
individuals (like Frederic Douglas) to flee to the north, leaving fewer slave
leaders in the south to lead revolts. 

Question 4.  Why did the nation as a whole not Change Alter Abolish slavery?
	* Even though a majority of Americans were opposed, our democratic system
was not able to put into action changes that could have ended slavery.  Because
the constitution requirement of a 2/3 vote of congress and a 3/4 vote of
states, an amendment was not possible. At this time there were 22 free states
and 15 slave states.
	* Up until about 1846, the political climate was such, that compromise on
the slave issue was more likely than not.  After that time, the last of the
leaders from the revolution period were gone, and compromise became less and
less likely.

Dr. Joseph Logston, theory about the Pendulum of American Politics.
	a 36 year cycle of 12 year rise to power, 12 year rule, and 12 year

1776  Jefferson	1787/89	Federalists & Nationalists Republicans	1812-28
1812  Jackson	1828/32	Democrats & Whigs	1848
1848  Lincoln	1860	Republicans & Democrats	1884
1884  T. Rosev.	1896	Republicans & Democrats	1920
1920  F. Rosev.	1932	Democrats & Republicans	1956
1956  Nixion	1968	Republicans & Democrats	1992
1992	2004	???

rise to power	reasonable majority	decline

1846 Mexican War
	* with the gain of these new territories, Texas, New Mexico, California,
lands that were already free of slavery, the balance of power in congress was
swing toward the free north.  Jefferson proposed the Western Ordinance that new
states part of the new territories must be admitted free.  The Missouri
compromise was passed, Except for Missouri, states about the Mason - Dixon line
must be admitted free, states below that could chose free or slave.
	* Wilmot Proviso, any territory taken form Mexico must be admitted free,
passed in house by large majority, but stopped in Senate.  

September 4,

	* Central question leading up to Civil War  --  How the slavery issue
became central issue in America politics and how it was framed in such a way
that the South became convinced that it must secessed from the union.

	By the 1840

	By 1846 when David Wilmot put forth what is known as the Wilmot Proviso,
the country was ripe for change in its slavery attitudes.  Attached to an
appropriations bill, the Wilmot Proviso stated that neither slavery or
involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of the Mexican territory.
	Wilmot was not an abolitionist, but was trying to protect whites right to
work free from the competition of slavery.   A prevailing attitude at the time
was ... no one deserved more than I do, those below me deserved what they got,
and I should not be expected to help them.
	The proviso passed in the house of representatives twice, but failed in the
senate.  These votes split the congress into north vs south instead of the
normal party divisions.  This splitting of votes by region led to the formation
of a new political party, the Free-Soilers.
	Also by 1846, the US owned all to the pacific coast, the continental US was
in place, and ready to start the state hood process, even though this process
would take years, the south felt locked in a corner with no prospect of new
slave states, they did not know how to respond.

	In the 1848 presidential election, Zachary Taylor (VP Millard Fillmore)
from the whig party was elected.  But the formation of a new political party,
the Free-soilers upset the Whig and Democratic strategy of keeping slavery out
of the campaign.  Even though Taylor was a slave owner, he felt he was the
president of the whole country, and shocked his southern allies with some of
his actions.  He had an unsuspected distaste for proslavery extremists.
	With the discovery of gold in California in 1849, the north south, slave
non-slave debate started anew.  California applied and was admitted as a free
state, changing a delicate balance in the senate.  Every free state (except NJ)
passed legislation stating that every new state should be admitted free. It was
then that the southern, slave states started considering secession.

	Omnibus Bill by Henry Clay (compromise of 1850) proposed that: California
be admitted free, divide new territories in half, Utah and Mexico, slavery in
any new states would be determined by the residents, slaves could no longer be
sold in DC, and the Fugitive Slave Law providing for a national court system
and federal marshals.  Taylor would not have signed this bill, but dies about
this time, and bill is signed by Fillmore.  Both the anti-slave and the
pro-slave sides disliked this compromise bill, again dividing the country into
north and south.
	Stephen A. Douglas, senator from Illinois, chairman of the territorial
committee, a great wheeler dealer emerged as a proponent of the Omnibus Bill. 
In exchange for many things, forgave Texas debt, bribed Louisiana congressmen,
put together the votes to pass the Compromise of 1850.  Douglas stated that he
would like to see the territories decide for themselves about slavery, and let
the Supreme Court step in if there were problems.

	In the election of 1852, the free-soilers disappeared as an effective
party, and the democrats elected Franklin Pierce president.

	Again, during this time period, Stephen Douglas in his dealing political
style affects events.  The Gadsden Purchase of 1853 obtained from Mexico for 15
million dollars land south of the Mexican territory.  This land could be used
to build a transcontinental railroad because it provided a pass through the
rocky mountains, running from New Orleans west to Los Angeles.  But getting
nervous about this (because he represented major railroad interests in
Illinois, he also sponsored the Kansas Nebraska Act to organize the last
remaining territories of the US.  This would provide for a transcontinental
railroad running west form Chicago to SanFrancisco.  This act nullified parts
of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by providing for Popular Soverentity
(determination by each territory if to be slave or free).  
	Almost overnight, opposition to this act galvanized into the formation of
the Republican Party.  A little know lawyer named Abraham Lincoln began
hammering Douglas for this and other mistakes he had made.
	It could be said that the Civil War began with the Kansas - Nebraska Act. 
With slave holders moving into (Lecompton) Kansas first they attempted to block
anti-slavers from entering.  Fighting in Kansas between pro-slave and
anti-slave factions began and included such peoples as John Brown (where in
Ossavanomie Kansas he killed slave owners while freeing their slaves).  This
territory became known as Bleeding Kansas.

	The election of 1856 sees the disappearance of the Whig party, the
Republicans become the second major party, and the Democrats are still divided
north and south.  James Buchanan, a Democrat from Pennsylvania sympathetic to
slavery wins a narrow victory over John Freemont, a republican.  If the
Republicans had won either New York, Illinois, or Iowa, they would have won the
	The Lecompton Constitution submitted to congress to have Kansas admitted as
a slave state was a farce.  Put forth by delegates elected by gerrymandering
election districts, and put to a vote without any real choice.  But the slavery
forces were loosing this battle, outnumbered by two to one, a new legislature
was elected, but not without many fraudulent votes being disallowed.  A new
constitutional convention was called, but in the mean time, the US congress was
considering the Lecompton Constitution. Fighting in congress over this matter
broke out in violence.  President Buchanan using his considerable power, got it
through the senate, but failed in the house.  When Kansas finally received
statehood, it came in as the most Republican of all states.
	Adding to all this north - south debate was the Dred Scott Case, leading to
the Supreme Court decision further dividing the country.  The decision in part
said Congress had no power to exclude slavery from a territory and the
exclusion clause of the Missouri Compromise was therefore unconstitutional.  It
also stated that ... as a slave and as a black, he was not a citizen because at
the time the Constitution was written, blacks 

	The Lincoln-Douglas Debates ... against this backdrop Lincoln delivered his
famous 'House Divided Speech

11-Sep-93 Class Notes

Politics and the causes of the Civil War
* Slavery in the Territories
* Did congress have the right to stop slavery in the territories
* Wilmot Prevision
* Congress overriding of Northwest Ordinance, Missouri Compromise meant there
was no way to keep slavery out of the Territories
* Different Social systems
* Lincoln lost of Senant seat to Douglas, and the insures this raised brought
the democratic party to be divided north & south
* Lincoln

John Brown in Kansas and then in Harper

Election of 1860
* Should slavery be admitted in Territories
* Democratic party was the last national party, met in convention at Charleston
S.C., the center of extreme pro slavery movements.  William Yancey put forth
the Alabama Platform.
	1. Pledge support for slavery

* Democratic party splits north / south, two conventions, two candidates
	in Baltermore, Stephen Douglas and Hiram Johnson nominated
	in Richmond, John Breckinridge and James Low nominated.
* Constitution Union Party (Wiggs) nominate John Bell & Edward Everit
* Republicans meet in Chicago, platform
	would not interfere with existing slavery
	prevent spread to territories
	tariff to aid industries	\
	support homestead act (free land)	 \__  to one better Douglas
	Aid for transcontinental railroad	 /
	system of public agriculture college	/
* Douglas has 4 months to reunify democratic party, he breaks with tradition
and stumps the country himself, but in trying to be the centris candidate he
looses support in both north an d south.  Lincoln stays at home, while other
campaign for him.

Electoral College results
	% PV	collage	Popular Vote (PV)
Breekinridge	18	  72	   850,000
Bell	13	  39	   590,000
Douglas	29	  12	1,375,000
Lincoln	40	180	1,866,000

Lincoln elected
* South in shock
* Lincoln silent
* Charles Sumner (republican) suggests new order, insists republican victory
would end slavery, slavery should not exist anywhere
* compared to election of 1858, republicans lost some ground in 1860, but with
Lincoln elected president, south readies itself to secede.
	1858	1860
	House	114 Rep, 117 others	108 Rep, 129 others
	senate	28 Rep, 38 others	29 Rep, 37 others

From Nov 1860 (election) to Mar 1861 - 4 month time line
* Congress in lame-duck session
* Secessionist conventions
* Presidential leadership (Bucannon, Lincoln)

Congress meets, republicans let democrats take lead.  A 33 member committee
meets puts forth the Crittenden compromise, backed by Douglas and Breckenridge,
six constitutional amendments.
	1. Slavery would be prohibited north of the Missouri compromise line
	2. Can

Crittenden widely debated, but with requirement of amendments of 2/3 of
congress and 3/4 of states, not much likelihood of passage. Lincoln letters to
Eliha Washburn and Limar Trumbull (page 84 of war documents) said that there
could be no compromise on extension of slavery.

Secession --
* Dec 20, 1860, South Carolina secedes, votes 169 - 0.  Had been considering
secession for last 8 years.  Takes over Federial property and forces question,
compromise may not be passably now.

Deep South	Border Confederate	Border Union
Texas	North Carolina	West Virginia
Louisiana	Tennessee	Kentuckee
Mississippi	Arkansas	Missouri
Alabama	Virginia
South Carolina

In Slave states there were 3 factions:  Secessionists, Cooperationests,

South Carolina, Dec 20, see page 7 of war documents, sends commissioners to

Mississippi, Jan 15, postpone 54-46, secede 61-39

Alabama, Feb 4, postpone 54-46, secede 61-39

Florida, Feb 3, least populated, 

Georgia, Postpone 164-133, Secede 208-89

Louisiana, Feb, for president, 22k Breckenridge, 20k Bell, 7k Douglas
	postpone, 80-44 (popular vote 20k - 17k)
	secede 113-7

Texas, impeach governor Sam Houston


San Houston

Upper South Secession
	Virginia - elected assembly voted 120 - 33 not to secede, wanted all
attempt at reconciliation, after Fort Sumter voted again 88 - 55 for secession,
vote basically went south east (slavery) for, north west (non-slave, hill
country) against.
	Arkansas - after Sumter and Lincoln call for troops, close vote to secede.
	Tennessee - vote of people 69k to 57k against secession, only state to
secede by vote of Legislature.  Congressmen Andrew Johnson opposed, only 
southern congressman to remain in Washington.
	North Carolina - LEAST supportive of secession, voted to secede after

Slave States staying in Union
	Kentucky - tried to be neutral, John Crettenden and John Breckinridge
became Confederate generals, 35K fought for Rebs, 75K for Yanks
	Missouri - voted both before and after Sumter not to secede. Gov. Jackson
formed government in exile.
	The Stars and Bars had 13 stars because the Confederacy included Kentucky
and Missouri even though they never voted to secede.
	Maryland and Delaware were seized by Federal government before they could
vote on secession.

	Votes for secession in Confederate states followed geographical boundaries
separating slave holders from non-slave holders. Tide-water lands hilly lands.

Presidential Decession Making
President James Bucannon
	was considered weak and indecisive, but that was  because of his stated
policy of peace not war, compromise, but not on union.  He thought that the
Federal government should not take any overt act against the south.  This would
keep the border states in the union, and eventually the seceded states would
	Lame Duck - there was about a five month period between the election and
when Lincoln would take office.  There was a session of congress in December.
Bucannon stated he would not oppose by force the seceded states, that they did
not have a Constitution right to secede, nut it was a revolutionary right, that
he would enforce the Fugitive Slave Law.  He was trying to remove the seceded
states reasons for wanting out of the union.  During a negotiation with
southern leaders, he would refuse to hand over federal property, including Fort
Sumter and Fort Pickens.  Virginia holds secret peace convention. John Tylor,
William Fessender, Daniel Wilmot, Solman Chase, but 7 seceded states and 4
union states did not attend.
	Bucannon cabinet resigns, Lewis Cass (Tn), Sec of State replaced by
Jeremiah S Black (Pa), Howell Cobb (Ga), Sec of Treasury by John Dix (NY),
Jocob Thompson (Ms) Sec of Interior, by Edwin Stanton (Pa), John Floyd (Va) Sec
of War by Joseph Hold (Ky).
	In a message to congress, Bucannon states he could not legally force
seceded states back into the Union.  Blamed troubles on Abolitionists.  Wanted
to reinforce Fort Sumter and Fort Pickens.  Sent Star of West to Sumter
unarmed, was fired on and left without landing.

Lincoln takes office
	arrives in Washington at night, discussed because of assassination threats. 
Has already stated that he would hold federal property in seceded states, and
would collect taxes.  William H. Seward (Sec of State, Wigg) presses for
compromise.  Convenes Lincoln to tone down inargrual speech, adds last
paragraph.  Lincoln finds letters from Anderson about state of Fort Sumter,
with Scott advises to surrender Sumter.  read Seward p49 of documents

Who Started the Civil War

War Questions

Why did Union win
	- Jefferson Davis
	- overconcern with States rights
	- Reb military strategy
	- south guilty
	- Crushing weight of size of union armies
	23 states to 11
	5 to 2 in population, 22m to 9m (3.5m salves)
	3 to 1 in wealth
	4 to 1 in liquid capital
	10 to 1 in manufacturing
	3 to 1 in railroads
	100 to 1 in merchant marines

Confederate Advantages
	- fighting on their own land, and for freedom, more entheusim
	- second war of independence
	- geography, south a very big place, good defensive positions,
	- interior lines of communications, fastest with the mostest
	- diplomatic, most Atlantic countries favored south, Britain, France

Outcome was inevitable unless
	1) Military victory early in war, quick strike
	2) Foreign intervention (King Cotton)
	3) Take advantage of military technology
	4) Defend not attack
	5) Guerrilla actions

Riffling and breach loading, changes occurred after 1850, but generals did not
change stragy, run faster, be more courageous, yell load.  Robert Toombs 

In 22 major military engagements, union was attacker about half the time ...
	Union	Confederacy
attacking	119,000	117,000	
defending	88,000	61,000
difference	31,000	56,000

1) Why did the South not take the early military advantage?
	National leadership was not well organized because of importance of State

Jefferson Davis selected as president (Ms)
	Alexander Stevens (Ga), vice-president

Questions for the Mid-term Exam ...

1. Draw a conclusion about the attitudes and policy of Abraham Lincoln toward
slavery and people of African descent:
	Read:	  9 - Lincoln Refuses to compromise on Slavery in the Territories,
	11 - Lincoln: First Inaugural Addrss, p41
	17 - Lincoln: Message to Congress on Compensated Emancipation, p62
	18 - Union or Emancipation, Horace Greeley & reply, p68
	19 - Emancipation, proclamation, 13th ammendment, p71
	20 - Lincoln and the Working-men of Manchester, England, p74
	27 - The Gettysburg Address, p101
	44 - Lincoln: Second Ingugural Address, p167
	45 - Lincoln: Last Public Address, p169

	Personally Lincoln was opposed to slavery.  As president he took seriously
his job to uphold the laws of the country.  He was very clear that the
fugitive-slave-clause of the Constitution needed to be enforced.  He was also
very clear in his belief that slaver ought not be extended into federal
territory.  As a new president, he had to deal with another issue, the seceded
states of the South.  To this he saw his clear duty was to save the Union.  
	In his first inaugural address he clearly states that he had no intention
of interfering with slavery in states where it already existed.  Once the war
started, Lincoln realized he had no choice but to defeat the South if he was to
preserve the Union.  In 1862, in response to an open letter by Horace Greeley,
Lincoln say if 

2. Draw a conclusion about the attitudes and policy of Confederate leaders
toward slavery and people of African descent.
	Read:	    - Mississippi declaration of secession (xrox copy)
	  1 - South Carolina Declaration of Causes of Secession, p 7
	  4 - Alexander Stephens: Slavery the Conerstone of Confederacy, p15
	21 - Jefferson Davis: Reply to the Emancipation Proclamation, p 79
	46 - Jefferson Davis: Last Message to the People of Confederacy, p175

	As each state seceded from the Union, it was unmistakable that slavery was
the overriding consideration.  This was clearly stated, even in their public
documents.  South Carolina and Mississippi, being the first two states to
secede, mentioned slavery over and over in their 'Declaration of Secession

3. Select any major battle of the Civil War.  Briefly identify the commanders,
describe the stratergy, tactics, and outcome, and determine the impact of the
encounter upon the course of the war.

4. Compare and contrast the first inaugural address, the statements on
emancipation, and the final presidential declarations of Abraham Lincoln, and
Jefferson Davis.
	Read:	  8 - Jefferson Davis: Inaugural Address, p28
	11 - Lincoln: First Inaugural Address, p41
	20 - President Lincoln and the working men of England, p74
	21 - Jefferson Davis: Reply to the Emancipation Proclamation, p79
	44 - Lincoln: Second Inaugural Address
	45 - Lincoln: Last Public Address

	Jefferson Davis

5.  You are a Southern newspaper editor, writing a lead editorial the day
following secession of your deep South state well before the firing on Fort
Sumter.  What would you say in your editorial?  If you were Abraham Lincoln,
what would you say in reply in a letter to the editor?

New Orleans Delta
January 27, 1861

	Today Louisiana stands proudly with it

Washington D.C.
March 8, 1861

Letter to the Editor, New Orleans Delta

	I have, within this week, taken the most solemn oath to 

Abraham Lincoln

6. What was the Compromise of 1850 and why was it necessary?  What effect did
the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Dred Scott decision have on the political
settlement?  Explain.

	The events leading to the Compromise of 1850 are complicated and occurred
over 40 starting in 1810.  But the central issue was slavery and what the
Southern States saw as threats to it.   It became obvious that California would
be admitted as a free state with the discovery of gold in 1849.  The great
fears of the South that it would continue to loose influence in congress as
more and more free states were admitted was brought to the front of American
politics again.  Many southern states began secessionist movements.  
	Omnibus Bill by Henry Clay, later to be called the Compromise of 1850
proposed that: California be admitted free, divide new territories in half,
Utah and Mexico, slavery in any new states would be determined by the
residents, slaves could no longer be sold in DC, and the Fugitive Slave Law
providing for a national court system and federal marshals.
	The bill was passed in a close vote after much politician and deal making
by Steven A Douglas.  Even so, no one was really happy with the settlement. 
Northners weren

7. Explain as best you can why the Confederate leaders fired the first shot int
he Civil War?

	From the Confederate point of view, the United States had made itself the
aggressor long before Lincoln acted to strengthen any fort.  When Major
Anderson moved his small force to Fort Sumter, a more defensible position, from
Fort Moultrie, a less defensible position, the Confederacy considered it
aggression.  Every day that the United States forces remained in Sumter or any
other place within the boundaries of the Confederacy, it was aggression.  How
could the Confederacy be considered a viable nation so long as a foreign power
held a fort in one of it

8. What made it so difficult for Lincoln to maintain his defensive position
before the firing on Fort Sumter?

	A combination of events made it difficult for Lincoln to maintain a
defensive position at Fort Sumter.  
* He did not learn that Anderson

Exam next Saturday, drop question #3
	1 1/2 hours, Identify major measures, events, people 5 of 7, 7 of 9
	1 of 2 essay questions from list

Confederacy organizes government, Feb '60, moves capital from Montgomery, AL
(heart of Dixie) to Richmond, VA
	Davis picks cabinet, trying to draw States together
	Robert Tombs (GA) - Sec. of State
	Christopher Memminger (SC) - Sec. Treasury
	Leron Pope Walker (AL) - Sec of War
	Stephen Mallory (FL) - Sec. of Navy
	Judah P. Benjamin (LA) - Attorney General
	John H. Regan (TX) - Postmaster General
	Appoints emissaries to US, André Roman (GA), Mortin Crawfort (GA)
and John Forsyth (AL).  On Feb 15, passes secret resolutions to obtain
possession of Fort Sumter (Pierce Beauregard) and Fort Pickent (Braxto Bragg). 
Still rail transportation between Washington and Richmond, so lots of
inelegance is being exchanged.  Davis is aware of Lincoln

Why did not either side take preemptive action with a quick early strike.
Union Military at the start of hostilities
- had almost no standing army, and Lincoln had almost no basis in law to build
a military.  He asks for 75,000 troops for defense of Washington, St. Louis,
and Harpers Ferry.
- had almost no arms.  With 125,000 smooth bore muskets, and a few thousand
riffles.  In charge of ordinance was Simon Cameron a Pensilvenia man, more
interested in 
giving his friends jobs and contracts than in building an Army, slowed
effective growth.  With almost no rifles, and no capacity to manufacture them,
the only source of same was from Europe.  Cameron decides to buy only American
make arms, while the Confederacy is able to buy many from England.
- Lincoln fearing that the South is better prepared for war, takes defensive
- after Virginia secedes April 15, Union loses Harpers Ferry, and Navel Yard at
Norfolk VA.
- Maryland would have seceded also, but is sized by Federal Government before
Legislature could vote.
- Union loses many senior military leaders, Robert E Lee, Joseph E. Johnson, 
- Winfield Scott was little help early, being 80 yrs. old, interested in
political settlement.
- before the North could press ahead, Lincoln had to change command of Military
by promoting may loyal intermediate officers.
- Lincoln did use the few resources he had to detent Kentucky, knowing that
would be a key to the coming war.  Quietly sent most of his rifles there, was
very effective.
- General McDowell commander of army was a good orginizer, but not a good
military leader, got the Union arms ready to fight, just didn

Confederate Military at the start of hostilities ..
- Had no department of War, has to start from scratch.  Because of States
Rights, governors were not willing to have central control of military.
- Never had an effective Sec. of War,  Jefferson Davis was a graduate of
Annapolis, wanted to be a commanding general more that he wanted to be
- South did have a better tradition of military men.  Compared to the north
with its old establishment,  344 Graduates of West Point, 144 generals,  425
graduates of Virginia Military Institute, 200 form South Carolina Military
Academy.  Generals were young compared to north, Jackson 38, Sturt 31,
Beauregard 43, Picket 38, Bragg 45, Lee 54, Johnson 54, AS Johnson 58.
- Confederate inventiveness helped effort also, John W Mallet exploding shells.
- On ly 10% of all Confederate guns would be made in South.
- The South through the whole war, never lacked for weapons.
- Jefferson Davis decides early that a defensive strategy would be best. 
Defending own land from a hostile aggressor would put the south in good light
of their own people and in the eyes of Europe.
- Internal Lines of Communications

Manassas Junction July '61 (1st Bull Run) - First battle of Civil war.
McDowell had 27,000 men  Beauregard 23,000.  Civilians from DC drove out to see
the fighting, Jefferson Davis was also there.  Each side thought the other
would not be up to fighting and would turn and run.  Fighting lasted all day,
with Union troops getting the best of things.  Late in the Day, Stonewall
Jackson joins fighting with his troops equipted with rifels.  Routs union
troops who turn and run, takes one night to return to DC when it had taken 4
day to march to Manassas.  Confederate troops so happy with victory, they
become too disorginized to follow up by persuing union arms.  Davis wanted to
proceed to DC, his generals did not,   
	Casualties	Killed	Wonded  Captured	 Weapons
Confiderates	2000	387	1582	1500	lots
Union	3000	481	1125	0	0

Confederacy things it has won the war, if not over will not last much longer. 
Many who joined army for 3/6 months now return home.  Jefferson Davis reject
recommendation of his generals to attack.

Lincoln appoints new generals, George S McClellon army of Patomic, Anderson in
Tenn., and Freemont in Missouri.

Will look at rest of war as Phase 1, up to Gettysburg, Phase 2, Gettysburg till
end.  Western Front, Eastern Front
Phase 1, Western front  -
	Rivers are not defensive positions, but highways, river navy plays big part
in battles, everything flowes towards New Orleans.  Union Navy has skilled
sailers, Confederacy has no Navy.  Lincoln


Battle of Shiloh, April 6 - 29  1862,  Union attacker, beginning of real Civil
	Killed	Wonded 	Captured     Total
Confiderates	1754	8408	959	13,047
Union	1723	8012	2885	10,694
	Total	23,741
Troops lost in this battle are more than in three previous wars

Fall of New Orleans, April 18-29, 1862
Class Notes, 9Oct93

Western Theater

	New Orleans, largest city is South by far, port for all of Mississippi
Valley was vonerable to attack from the Gulf of Mexico.  David Dixion Porter
was in charge of planning Union invasion.  A merchant marine, he had made many
trips up and down the river and was familiar navigating it.  He was also in
care of blockade of the river and received much information on the Confederate
defenses.Principal defenses were two forts south of New Orleans, Fort St.
Philip (50 guns, 1,100 men) and Fort Jackson (74 guns, 1,100 men).	forts
	The forts were positioned in a bend of the 
to catch vessels when they were most venerably
traveling at slow speeds, just coming in view of 	mortars
fort.  South also had two incomplete Iron clad vessels
the Louisiana and Mississippi.  
	Porter brought up 20 motor vessels, each 
with 10 guns, and 1000 rounds of shells, and about 
18,000 troupes under the command of Benjamin Butler.  David G. Forrogut was in
charge of invasion operations. By March 1882 Farrogut was ready.
	In charge of operations for the Confederacy in New Orleans was Mansfield
Lovell.  He was appalled at proportions being made in New Orleans.  He had only
3000 troupes. Puts most of his energy into conversion of two wooden ships to
iron clad steamers.  They were not complete, and had to be towed to the battle
	Attack was devastating,  1000

Eastern Theater

	Winfield Scott

Merrimac verses the Monitor.
	Franklin Bucannon for the confedercy refits a captured union vessel to an
iron clad ship.  Jon Ericson for the Union designes from scrtach a unique ship,
iron clad, with one major gun turret.  The two ships meet in a battle, neither
is victorious.

	My April 9, MaClellan is ready to move, but the Confederates were ready,
being tipped of by leaks from Washington.  Joseph E Johnson.  McClellan edges
up towards Richmond with strong defensive formations.  He now thinks he faces
200,000.  The Confederates have about 70,000.

Seven Days Battle
	Robert E Lee is now in charge.  Confederates with Stonewall Jackson attack
in many different places.  Battles are a standoff, with losses U-15500,
C-20600.  This confuses and demorlizes McClellan as he starts to fall back. 
Reports to Lincoln by McClellan convince Lincoln to recall troops.  From this
Lincoln learns not to interfere with battle planning, but he does replaces
McClellen with Pope.

Second Battle of Bull Run
	Lee forces Pope to fall back, Lincoln puts McClellan back in charge.

Confederacy Changes Strategy
	from defensive to offensive, is mainly a political decesion.  President
Davis enjoys great popularity during first.  But as war drags on, there is
increasing political pressure on him to bring the fight to the North. 
Opposition comes from radical Secessionests Robert Barnwell Rhett constantly
questions Davis leadership partly out of jelocy for being left out of the
government.  He is supported by newspapers such as the Charlston Mercury and
then the Richmond Examiner (editor Edward Pollard publishes book in 1882 titled
1st Year of War).  Davis had lots of support too like the Charleston Courrier. 
But there was considerable pressure to change the cource of the war made worse
by the loss of New Orleans and other losses in the West.  There was
considerable more freedom of the press in the South than in the North, and
Lincoln did not have to face such strong opposition.
	Partly in response to all this, Davis instatues the first every in America
military draft.  This is an afront to states right.  By March 1862, Davis calls
for draft of 18-35 for the duration of the war.  It passes by 2 to 1 margin. 
But it lead to the first critisim of Davis by political leaders.  A Georgia
governor Joseph E Brown and a representative  Henry F Foote.  
	Davis and Lee decide on an invasion of the North.  Because of political
pressures and because of Lee

Sharpsburg * Antietam Sept. 3, 1862 - the beginning of the End of War
	With great plans and antispitation Lee crosses the Potomac.  But things go
badly right from the start.  D.H. Hill get two sets of orders from Lee.  Rapps
some cigars in one copy, and leaves them behind.  Found by northern scotts,
Lees battle plans are soon in McClellan

Class Notes, 16Oct93

Brady, Civil War photographer, show in Washington after Antietam (Sharpsberg)

Question 3.  Political Considerations - Why didn

How would the South carry out its diplomacy?
	* with a voluntary cotton embargo, export enough to pay for supplies during
first two years.  The 1861 harvest was on of the biggest, but almost none of it
would reach Europe.
	* original diplomat to Europe
	William Yancy was best known, but had his liabilities, had killed his
father-in-law, was fire-eating pro-slavery, secessionist form Alabama.  Judge
Pierer Rost, knew French.  A. Dudley Man
	Sec. of State Robert Toombs also was not a good diplomat
in 1861, 
	* alread in in England, cotton was in over supply, so England did not at
first feel any pressure from the South not shipping cotton.
	* any attempt by England to intervene would be risky, especially Canada as
a colony of England could be attacked by US
	* France, Napoleon III, was trying to restore a French emporia was already
involved in Mexico (Maximilian), so France was reluctant to intervene on the
side of the South.
	* England also depended on US for food, especially wheat.

How did Europe Respond -
	* in May 1860, granted Confiders belligerents status, as long as there was
not an effective blockade, this would allow trade with both sides.  This
inspired hope in Confederacy, but should not have, and was way short of
	* in fall of 1861, Davis sends new mission to Europe,
	James M. Mason - from Virginia not a very good choice, was the author of
Fugitive Slave Law
	John Slidell of Louisiana spoke French, was the best and most experienced
	* The union military gives the South its best advantage in foreign policy
when Charles Wills, naval commander stops the English ship the Trent and
arrests Slidell and Mason.  England calls this an act of piracy.  Lincoln &
Soule back down and release them.
	* by 1862, supplies of Cotton in England were finally getting low. 
Relations with the US were always strained.
	*  Manchester Guardian comes out in favor of backing the Confederacy allow
with Charles Darwin, Thomas Carlyle, and Lord
	* James Spence a southern Journalist from Sweden promotes the South

What was South

Why did the South fail in fall of 1862 to be recognized by Europe
	1. poor diplomats
	2. Slavery was at odds with European values
	3. Large stores of cotton at the beginning of war, new sources after 1861
	4. Northern economic pressure England (food) and France (Monroe Doctrine)
	5. Defeat at Antietam
After Antietam fall 1862 and up to Gettysburg Fall 1863

	East	West
Fredericksburg, 12-11-62	Vicksburg, 4,5-63
Chancellorsville, 5-2-63	Port Hudson
Gettysburg, 7-1-63

	* McCullan is sacked after Antietum, 
	* Burnside is takes command of Army of Potomac
Fredericksburg is worst Union Loss
	Union	Confederates
	120K men	70K men
	374 artillery	recast artillery, much better
	new rifles	
	C - 12500	5300
	K - 1284	650
	W - 9100	4000
	M - 1750	0

Fall 1863, Lincoln puts Joe Hooker in charge, 134k men and 400 artillery

Chancellorsville, U - 16800,  C - 12800

Twice Union armies were defeated but again Confederacy abandons it defensive
posture to press on an offensive into Pensilvenia.  Davis and Lee decide to
attach, why who knows.  Longstreet proposed to send part of Lee

What was going on in west.
	* New Union strategy 
	Ed Stanton, a war democrat, efficient bureaucrat, in favor of ending
slavery, after removal of McCullan, Stanton and Lincoln run much of war
together.  Involve Black Troops  186k, 36% killed
Problems for Union in West
	* Vicksburg, high on bluff overlooking river
	* Port Hudson on bluff surrounded by swamps
	both presented easily defendable positions,
	allows Confiders path across Mississippi River	      Port      Hudson
	it was difficult for Union to defeat these positions.
	* John A McClerand develops a new military strategy, troops live off land,
Grant to march army west side of Mississippi to south of Vicksburg.  Transports
to run past Vicksburg, and cross troops to east bank.  During this time Grants
army would be cut off from being resupplied and would have to live off the
land.  Grant likes the idea, but he has a repartition as an alcoholic.  Stanton
sends Charles A. Dora to get story on Grant.  Finds him honest, determined,
lacked political ambitions.

Vicksburg, Brag & Johnson, surrenders July 3, 1863, Port Hudson is
abandoned after fall of Vicksburg

May 28, 1862,
	Lee again moves into Pensilvenia.  Hooker asks to be removed and is
replaced by Gordon Mead, a Pensilvenian, knows area well.  Lincoln and Stanton
conduct war effort themselves.

	Union now is well supplied with repeating rifles

	After Gettiesburg, leadership of Union Armies came from the West, Grant,
Sherman and others.  W.T. Sherman from Ohio, West Point, left army to become
head master of LA Semenary (LSU).  A devoted Unionest, racest, told South it
was bound to fail.  Faught at Bull Run, promoted to General, transfered to
West.  Excentric, distained meat and military dress.  After Shiloh became Grant

Grant and Lee, May 1864 - May 1865
	Grant use one huge right flanking movement                                           
in a year long battle of attrition against Lee.  Each 
time Lee would quickly move his men to meet
Grant.  Usually beeting Grant there with time to 
prepair defensive positions.  Grant started with                                          
100,000 men to Lee

Lincoln and Slavery
	* Lincoln was from a southern family, from a slave state, not a slave
holder, a baptist whose minister preached anti-slavery.  He was a poor white
	* As a boy, he visits New Orleans, see

What changes Lincoln

	* October 1861, offers to Delaware Federal compensation if they free
slaves, but Delaware legeslature would not even intorduce the measure.
	* December 1861, Offers to Congress compensated Emencipation.
	* March 1862, Lincoln offers legeslation, if Border States agree to free
slaves, gradually until 1900, conpensation, recolonization.  States that less
than 87 days cost of war would pay for program.  Lincoln lobbies Border states
for aproval, tells black Americans that it is in their best interests to leave
US.  Not one border state would support proposal, blacks comdem it.
	* August 1862, Horus Greely

Emansipation Proclamation
	* Free slave in Confederate lands, not in Union lands
	* Sweard sends copies agroad to limit chance of Europe supporting South
	* Stocks declined, enlistments slowed, border states upset
	* in elections of 1863, Illinois, NY, NJ and Delweare elect democratic
	* December 1862, Lincoln again offers border states compensation, still not
one would consider ending slavery.
Possible Questions                                                          
History 4506
Final Exam                                                                       
Prof. Logsdon

1. Write a coherent and unified essay on Abraham Lincoln

2. Demonstrate and explain the influence of Andrew Johnson on the formulation
of the Congressional Reconstruction program.  Why was he impeached?

3. Charles Sumner once declared in referring to Congressional and PResidential
action in behalf of black Americans that 

4. Briefly recount the development of the reconstruction policies of Lincoln
and Johnson.  Explain any differences and speculate on the motivatives of each

5.  In what sense was New Orleans a peculiar place in the South both before the
Civil War and during the war?  What impact did Reconstruction have upon the
black community of the city?

6.  What were the major gains of emancipation and Reconstruction for black
people in Louisiana?  What were the major limitations?

7. Explain the conservative reaction in Louisiana through the life of Marshall
30 Oct 93, class notes

Politics from slavery to Reconstruction, Lincoln was under pressure from many
directions.  And his politics reflected this pressure.

* Border State Pressures,  Emancipation Proclomation did not cover border
states, Lincoln had appealed to them to free slaves themselves.  In 1863 the
Confiderate arms was still a threat to overtake border states.  There was still
a chance that border states could secede.  
	Maryland was essential to Lincoln, District of Columbia was surrounded by a
slave state.  Thomas D. Hicks, governor of Maryland, had delayed secession
convention.  Benjamin Butler lead army by sea and captured Annapolis, the
capital of Maryland.  Provost Marshalls, military ploice, occupies Maryland and
arrests secessionest members of legislature.  Maryland was the first slave
state captured and reconstructed by military.  Unionist factions in Maryland,
Montgomery Blair, moderate, Henry Winter Davis, radical Republican.
	Missiouri, governor Claiborne Jackson had helped raze an army for the
Confederates.  Having voted not to secede, the secessionest convention was
reassembled by Federal Troops to remove Governor Jackson.  Montgomery Blair was
also active in Missiouri.  German immagrant Carl Schurz a radical Republican.
	Kentucky was a more delicate situation, Lincoln had sent troops, but not to
control as in the other states.
	Delaware was not a problem, not being bounded by a Confederate State.

* What did Lincoln do to keep the support of War Democrats.
	Republicans in 1860 election only got 40% of vote.  Democrats had several
strong areas of support.  
	New York City (including Connecticut and New Jersery).  Democrats were
supported by a large immergrant population and by the business community who
were Jacksonian Democrats.
	Middle West, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Winsconsin, were almost one
party states.  Stephen Douglas with his railroad and land development interests
was a powerfull force in Democratic movement of this area.
	Peace Democrats like New York City mayor Fernando Wood says that the war
against the South is illeagle, that the Union should be restored by compromise. 
Wood is racist, knowing that free blacks will compete for same jobs and housing
as the recient and large immergrant populations.
	Peace Democrats in the Middle West was a growing minority lead by Clement
Vallandigham.  Born in Ohio, his family followed the same migration route of

What lead to the lack of support of Democrats to the War?
	* Partinship
	* War weariness, thought war would be shart, turning point was starting of
a draft and the ability to buy a substute for the draft ($600).  Rich man

Key issue, the centeral issue affecting Lincoln

Election results:	R	D	C/U
	37th Congress 1860	106	42	28
	37th Congress 1862	102	75	  9

Lincoln, probably the best politican ever to be presidend, was very aware of
the political realities of the war.  The 37th Congress election results were in
prior to his announcment of the Emancipation Prolomation.  He could see that
the Republicans were losing ground in elections, but could he know why?

Lincoln could read election results:  he doesn


What were the factors affecting Politics and Slavery in the occupied
territories of the South during the war?
	* Cotton crops needed to be harvested and replanted, northern industry
pushing for this.
	*  Black troops for the Union army
	*  Avoiding the probability of slave inserrections in South
	*  Northern Generals had political goals
	*  Angor toward confederate enemy

	Solmon P. Chase, sec. of the Treasurery, most radical of Republicans in

Louisiana Reconstruction under Benjamin Butler, 
	* Butler with New England Troops and about 10,000 slaves at Camp Parapet
(near Causeway and River Road).  First concern was slave inserection, control
of slaves.
	* Chare through his Treasurery Agents, George Denison, pushes Butler for
radical action.  Wants Cotton trade starte again using free (slave) labor.  In
Sept '62 Chase pushes Butler to free all slaves, but Butler, a Democrate,
hesitates because he is not sure what Lincoln

Department of the Mississippi Valley headed by General Lyinso Thomas resists
orders by Lincoln to orginize freemen for military service.  Uses black man as
labor, teamsters and guards, unfit, women, childern are sent to plantations
which were leased to questionable characters for North.  Stanton grew to hate
Thomas, sent James Wadsworth to find out what was happening.
6 Nov 93, Class Notes

Final Exam  --  Dec 4
	I  -  ID

Beginning of Reconstruction
	main purpose was the reorganization of slave order, Reconstruction in
Louisiana was most important, starting in the spring of 1862.

Fall 1862 - Department of the Gulf, first under Benjamin Butler, then Nathaniel
Banks.  Lorenzo Thomas from upper Mississippi Valley visited New Orleans to see
progress of reconstruction, both were similar.
	Department of the Gulf was more secure
	More slave holders remained in the area
	More educated Black leadership

Bureau of Free Labor headed by George Hanks
	used precedents in New England law, vagrancy laws (homeless).  Idol blacks
could be picked up and competed to word or serve aprintaships.  Used these to
gain control or free Blacks, and to lessen need for rations in camp.  Putting
them to work using annual contracts  -
	- could chose employers
	- army acted as labor agent
	- could cultivate garden
	- employer provided housing, $10 per month wage
	- education for children (the beginnings of Public Education)
	- no corporal punishment, Provost Marshals regulated punishment, fines,
stocks, expulsion from Department of Gulf.
	- regulated movement by Provost Marshals.
Eventually, there was major scandal.  Hanks was forcing planters to pay for
access to labor.  As this become more profitable, Army became more aggressive
in rounding up more Blacks, even free Blacks.  Hanks was eventually trapped,
replaced by Thomas Conway, who helped Banks a lot, military chaplain, honest,
abolitionists, from Sea Islands, worked with public schools.

	As national criticism of these programs grew, Stanton sent General James
Wadsworth and James Yeatman with the Western Sanitary Commission (like USO) to
investigate.  Yeatman reports that some problems being caused by northern
opportunists trying to operate plantations in occupied South.  He proposes
reforms to Salmon P. Chase, who assumes control in Mississippi Valley by act of
* In Fall of 1862, a new program is started, a wage/labor system providing for:
	- modest land redistribution (important)
	- greater freedom, better wages
	- prompt payment of wages (monthly or weekly, not only at harvest)
	- preference to Blacks for plantation leases with options to purchase
	- William Mullen in charge, 40 acres and a mule
This program caused controversy in congress, the arms being upset with another
civilian program operating in war zones.  Lasted from Dec 1863 to Feb 1864. 
About the same time, Chase in Sea Islands provides lands for freedman.  Lincoln
, because Chase is involved questions these programs.

Land Reform
	The failer of US to provide prosperity to freedmen is the largest
disappointment of the Civil War.  By the time of the war, land reform had
already occurred in France and in Russia.
	- the best opportunity for reform came as a result of the National Tax to
pay for the war, which extended to Confederates.  Much land was seized for
non-payment of these taxes.  In Feb '63,  tax law was amended to set aside part
of this land for charity.  Freedmen could purchase up to 20 acres for $1.25 an
acre. In Nov '63 under Chase, Rufus Saxon allows blacks to stake claims. 
12-31-63 plan is extended to 40 acres every were.  Lincoln pressured by Tax
Commissioners and businessmen, and the plan is withdrawn by Chase in Feb '64. 
In July 1864 Lincoln transfers control back to Army, Chase resigns.  Charles

Presidential Politics
	Lincoln concerns for reelection were the war, peace Democrats, radical
Republicans.  Radical Republicans were
	- energetic prosecutors of the war
	- concerned about slavery, then freedmen
	- minority of Republican Party, but could control balance of Power
	- politically dangerous to Lincoln reelection
Some Radical Republicans try to dump Lincoln for Party nominations as in 1864
the war seemed to be continuing to go badly.  Lincoln too is discouraged and
considers not running if a viable War Democrat could be found.  But he
ultimately won the endorsement of every state Republican Party.

National Conference Committee for the Union
	under Seward with Senator Morgan in charge is use by Lincoln to gather
support for reelection.  Chase sets up Republican National Committee, and
becomes center of discontent in Republican Party.  Chase is pitiably third
party candidate for president.  He has good support in  Kansas, Missouri,
Illinois.  Samuel Pomeray sends out Pomeroy Circular, it is supposed to be
limited in distribution.  Calling for a more aggressive candidate than Lincoln.
This ends up hurting Chase


	Democrats meet in August 29, 1864 in Chicago.  War and Peace democrats come
together, peace at any cost.  George McCullan nominated, union to be

	Lincoln is still wondering if he can be reelected, as things begin to
change.  After Demo and Republican parties conventions, the Radicals came under
pressure to support Lincoln.  Victory at Atlanta, the turning Point of the war

	Lincoln is reelected with 212-21 electoral votes, 55% of popular vote, wins
every state in Union, except Kentuckee, Delaware, New Jersey.  In congress, it
was even a bigger victory with the Republicans holding 149 to 39 seat edge over
Democrats.  It was Lincoln

Lincoln, Congress, and the 13th Amendment.
	The lame-duck Congress will meet in December 1864, if it does not call for
a special session, the next congress will not meet until December 1865.  In
June 1864 congress failed to pass the 13th Amendment, opposed by the Democrats
and Border States.  A major reason for this was the fear in the north that a
newly freed black population would move north to compete for jobs there.  It
was one thing to stop the spread of slavery, yet another to free all slaves.
	With the Confederate States out of congress, the Republicans held a large
majority of seats.  In 1860, the percentage breakdown of congress was 40%
Republican, 20% Northern Democrats, 35% Confederate.  By 1865 this changes to
be 45% Republican, 15% Northern Democrats, 35% Confederate.  Easy math shows
that when the Confederate congressmen return, together with the Northern
Democrats they would have a majority of seats in Congress.
	This is what is in Lincoln

Does Lincoln deserve the title of 


New Orleans 
	- New Orleans captured in April 1862, Butler in charge
	- reconstruction policy open for debate
	- Butler, radical Jacksonian, ignores support of Business classes, tries to
build government for working class emergrants.
	- helped to clean up city and corruption.  Taxed the Business class.
	- with voter registration limited to whites willing to take a loyalty oath,
only white Congressmen wee elected.
	- Congress refused to seat this delegation from Louisiana, so a new policy
would have to be tried.

2nd Plan, December 8, 1863, congress reconvened
	- Offers amnesty that allows confederates to take an oath of loyalty,
except high ranking officers, former confederate elected officials, outlaws,
and those who mistreated black troops.
	- As soon as 10% of 1860 voters take oath, a government could be formed.
	- the government would have to be (r)epublican in form.
	- States would have to be unchanged in name and territory.
	- Requires abolishtion of slavery.
	- (IMPORTANT) Elected representatives would have to be approved by House
and Senant 
	- No states would be readmitted under this plan because of resistance from
free-black men in Louisiana and because Radical Republicans (abolishtionests)
will not be satisfied with ending slavery, without enfranchisement.

What happened in Louisiana
	Radical black leadership came from 20,000 free blacks already in Louisiana,
16,000 in New Orleans.  These freemen of color, Creole's.  Many were native to
Louisiana before there were any Americans.  They were French speakers,
Catholic, lived in the French Quarter, opened for business on Sunday.  They
came from a very different political history that Americans.  Some of their
leadership were in France during 1848 when slavery was ended and all peoples
were enfranchised, with major land reform.
	So it was that in New Orleans, the Creole's would take lead.  On September
2, 1862, Paul Trevigne (Andre Trevigne) began editing L

Louisiana Reconstruction
	* Black leaders in Louisiana shapped outcome of reconstruction debate.  In
1861 it has been less than 60 years since the Louisiana Purchase.  French were
the largest group of immigrants in New Orleans, with family ties to France,
traveled back and forth to France.  Some were of complete Aferican ansestery,
like Edmund Dede who studied music in Fance.  The treaty of 1803 held that all
residents of Louisiana were citizens of United States.  Att. General Bates had
declared Dred Scott decesion to be invalid, so blacks were citizens.  It is
from this tradition of the free Creole blacks of New Orleans would asume a role
of leadership in reconstructing Louisiana under Lincoln and Batler, then Banks.
	* Banks was very conservative, and was slow to respond to appeals from
Lincoln to involve black in reconstruction efforts.  Banks drove every black
officer out of the army.  Led by Oscar T. Dunn, black leaders were already
supported by Mosonic Lodges (started in 1850

Black voting rights as a key issue in Reconstruction came from this experience
in Louisiana.  The Radical Rebublican adgenda comes out of Louisiana. 

Wade - Davis Bill, passed July 2, 1864.
	Many congressman had already left for home for the summer.  It was the last
day this session of Congress.  The vote was House: 65-42 - 75 absent, 
	        Senant 18-14 - 17 absent.
This bill would have confined the reconstruction process to white voters only. 
It required a new census of Confederate states requiring an 

Andrew Johnson:
	was a lone wolf, from North Carolina, poor, father died when he was 3,
mother gave he over to a taylor for apprentiship at age 14.  Move to Tennessee,
married, taught to read by his wife.  He was very class conscious, clashed with
wealthy planters, had deep hattred of.  A democrat, but very independent, felt
he was a representative of the people, poor white people, a slave owner, very
racists.  Became governor of Tennessee in 1853 after having served in almose
every elected political office, including a US congressman.  In 1861, as a
senator, he was the only elected member of congress from a seceeded State to
remain in Washington.  He greatly admired Andrew Jankson.  Was appointed by
Lincoln as governor of Tennessee during the war.  In Washington he was an
outsider, no roots, he did not know any Republicans and was devorsed by the
Democrats, a lone wolf.  But he managed to always be on the winning side.
	* On becomming President in his first speaches said that treason is a crime
and should be punished, must be made odeous.  This turned out to be a passing
phase, and he never again gave speeches like these.  
	* May 29, 1864, Proclomation of Amisty, excluding high officials and owners
of property valued at more that $20,000, these (mostly plantation owners, whom
he hated) could apply for a presidential pardon (Johnson probably enjoyed these
wealthy souther men having to ask him for a pardon).  
	* North Carolina reconstruction, provesional Governor William W. Holden. 
Requiered  50% of number voting in 1860 to register, pledge future loyality, a
constutional convention, abolish slavery, repeal secession ordenance, cancel
debt, pass 13th amendment.  Most Republicans were not satisfied with this plan,
but since North Carolina was the state that required the least punishment were
willing to go along, thinking that future plans would treat Confederate states
more harshly.
	* Things got worse soon, when on June 15 Johnson perposed the same plan for
Mississippi, and then soon for the rest of the confederate states.
	* Congress will not meet till December.  Radicals upset because these plans
did not make provesion for black vote.  Johnson said he could not do that
because the constitution left voter qualification to the States.  
	* Johnson believed that blacks must be kept seperate, he was against black
citizenship and black sufferage.  Few people knew about his true feeling in
1865.  He had confided in Salmon Chase.  After all, only Massachusets (and New
York) alowed blacks to vote anyway.
	* This is not a major cause of resistance to Johnson.
	* Fall 1865, the confederate states are dragging their feed with
reconstruction.  Some repeal, not nulify secession ordinances, South Carolina
does not cancel debt, some state that they are opposed to freeing slaves and
agree to it only under force to do so,  many pass 

Johnson Reconstruction
	First session of Congress in 1865 did not occur until December.   During
this time Johnson carried on reconstruction by himself.  Black sufferage was
not a consideration.  The Republicans were in several factions:  Moderates
being a majorty, the Conservatives willing to compromise with the president,
and the Radicals, the smallest of the factions.  The Moderates thought Johnmson
would follow a plan close to their own and to what Lincoln had demonstrated in
Louisiana, since he was the sucessor to Lincoln.  
	In a speech to the opening session of Congress, Dec 6, 1865  Johnson says
that formar Confederate states must ratify 13th ammendment.  That it remains
for the states to resume their place in congress to complete reconstruction. 
That the freedmen should be protected in property and liberty.  That it was up
to Congress to readmit reconsturcted states, except that it was each state
right to set voting rights.  Congress assumed that Johnson was suggesting to
them to act on reconstructing of Southern statses.
	Lyman Trumbull of Illinois, a friend of Lincoln and floor leader presented
two bills to congress, thinking that he had Johnson

Radical Reconstruction
	Republicans in congress realize that readmitting Confederate states as
reconstructed by Johnson (with same leadership that led to secession) would
result in the Republicans loosing control of Congress.  Republicans represented
about 45%, northern Democrates about 20%, with the South have the remaining
35%.  Northern Democrates together with Johnson

Fourteenth Ammendment, is a way for moderate Rebublicans to avoid issue of
Black sufferage and keep Democrats from taking control of Congress.
	1) American citizenship, adding to the constitution the notion of National
citizenship, not just state citizenship.
	2) 3/5 person canceled, states confer voting rights, but when a state
denied vote to any portion of adult male population, state would loose same %
of representation in congress.
	3) Disinfranchise those who before the war swore Oath of allegiance to US
and who supported the Confederacy, 2/3 vote of Congress required for pardon.
	4) Confederate debt illegal, US debt valid.  Prohibit compensation to slave
	Passed by Congress in June of 1866, and becomes a key issue in elections in
the fall of 1866.  Tennessee radifies 14th ammendment in July 1866 and it

Reconstruction Act

	Johnson could have pocket vetoed these bills, but returns them with a veto
letter, and veto is overidden.  It is these vetos and his failer to inforse
other reconstruction laws that leads to the House Impeachment of Johnson. With
the Senant as jury, and Chief Justice as Judge, house as prosecutor, the Senant
fails by one vote to remove Johnson from office.  It is likely that the vote
could have been less close because no one wanted Benjim Wade (president protem
of Senant) to become President.  So it was really politicy that kept the Senant
from convicting Johnson.

 The collapse of Radical Reconstruction, it was race, not corruption, violence
or disorder that undid Reconstrction.  Louisiana reconstruction started first,
ended last.  Black voting lasted into the 20th centry, in New Orleans until
1898.  There is no evidence that there was anymore corruption during the
administration of Republican reconstruction goverments in the South then there
was before or after.  Mississippi probably had its most honest government
during reconstruction.

Yazoo County, Yazoo City, Miss, the black belt, delta lands of Mississippi
	 In 1865, Johnson had appointed Willian Sharkey governor who restored most
of the original pre-war, confederates to office.  Its orginial form of
government was retained, Justice of Pease, County Supervisors, Sheriff, etc. 
Robert S. Hudson a typical racists, of this time. Under this government, a

Radical Reconstructions falls apart in 1874 with the country in the full grip
of a depression.  Democrats gained control of the House of Representative, and
refuse to fund or support the Freeman Breau.  In 1875, a plan modled after
Louisiana, called the Mississippi plan, White League. Whites attack a political
meeting in Yazoo City, Morgan baily excapes.   Morgan is symbolic of Radical
Reconstruction. Quote 

Farmer Confederates sweep back into office, with more power than before the
Civil War.  Woodrow WIllson brings segration to federal Government.  

Possible Questions                                                          
History 4506
Final Exam                                                                       
Prof. Logsdon

1. Write a coherent and unified essay on Abraham Lincoln

2. Demonstrate and explain the influence of Andrew Johnson on the formulation
of the Congressional Reconstruction program.  Why was he impeached?
	Johnson layed out his plan for reconsturction in May 1865.  He announced a
pardon for the Confederacy, with exceptions for high officials and owners of
property worth more thatn $20,000.  A special pardon could be granted by direct
petition to himself.  His reconstruction plan was: Appointment of provisional
governor, Oath of future loyalty to the Union, When 50% of numbers voting in
1860 took oath an election of delegates to constitutional convention could be
held, convention required to abolish slavery, Repeal secession ordinance and
reputiate confederate debt, and Pass the Thirteenth Amendment.
	By the end of 1865, all the confederate states except Texas had elected new
governments and Johnson was ready to readmit them.  All of this took place with
Congress out of secession.  By late 1865 Republicans support for Johnson

3. Charles Sumner once declared in referring to Congressional and Presidential
action in behalf of black Americans that 

4. Briefly recount the development of the reconstruction policies of Lincoln
and Johnson.  Explain any differences and speculate on the motivatives of each
	There is no Lincoln plan of reconstruction.  He had no single plan.  His
plan was always in flux.  Indeed we can say, as he somtimes said his only set
policy was to have no se policy.  In the spring of 1862, Lincoln

5.  In what sense was New Orleans a peculiar place in the South both before the
Civil War and during the war?  What impact did Reconstruction have upon the
black community of the city?
	New Orleans was the real rehersal for reconstruction and reorginization of
slave socity.  New Orleans was more complex because of its white/black free
black population, native and emergrant.  It was the largest urgan area with the
larges free black population in the South, and it was captured intact without
damage to city.  Most of the land in south Louisiana was Union controled. 
Solmon Chase also leads in reconstruction of New Orleans, the Department of the
	Radical black leadership came from 20,000 free blacks already in Louisiana,
16,000 in New Orleans.  These freemen of color, Creole's.  Many were native to
Louisiana before there were any Americans.  They were French speakers,
Catholic, lived in the French Quarter, opened for business on Sunday.  They
came from a very different political history that Americans.  Some of their
leadership were in France during 1848 when slavery was ended and all peoples
were enfranchised, with major land reform.
	So it was that in New Orleans, the Creole's would take lead.  On September
2, 1862, Paul Trevigne (Andre Trevigne) began editing L

6.  What were the major gains of emancipation and Reconstruction for black
people in Louisiana?  What were the major limitations?
	Black Louisianaians gained universal male suffrage and went beyond almost
all other southern states in their attempts to end racial segreation.  They
completely desegregated all public accomodations and public schools in New
Orleans. The radical agenda for Reconstruction comes out of Louisiana and is
pushed upon the white abolitionists and upon the white radical Republican
leaders in Congress.  Republican leaders had not contemplated such an idea
befoe it was placed before them in an organized fashion by the black leaders of
New Orleans.
	Land reform or the lack of it is one of the dey issues in the Civil War and
in Reconstruction .  There was some talk of it, but that did not happen.  The
slaves remained largely a landless and poor agricultural laborers and the
fleeing in great numbers to the cities but not having a stake in land.  Being
outside the Jeffersonian dream.  This is a case of a failed reform.  This major
change did not accompany emancipation.

7. Explain the conservative reaction in Louisiana through the life of Marshall
	Marshall Harvey Twitchell, a carpetbager, an agent of the Freedmen

Possible Indentifies                                                          
History 4506
Final Exam                                                                       
Prof. Logsdon

Antietam	Changed nature of war, gave Lincoln victory he was wating for to
issue amancipation, kept Europe our of war, confederates abandoning ddefensive
policy and losing chance to defeatethe larger maor wealthy North
King Cotton	South's mistaken belief that the world would be compleled to
support it in the war against the North because of posiable loss of Cotton
Trent	US stops Bridish boat on high seas, capturesJohn Slidell and
Mason,Confederate diplomatice team.Britsh act of piracy, Lincoln backsdown.
Karl Marks	Leader of English workers, showed them that their cause was tied to
the efforts to end slavery in US
John Fremont	Republican presidenal candidate in 1856, Union General in
Missouri, relieved by Lincoln when he proclaimed marshal law and declared
confiscated slaves free
Confiscation Acts	Congresional emancipation, freeing slaves of rebelous
owners, Lincoln could not go along with this, a violation of states rights
Crittenden - Johnson Resolutions	Was was being fought to support the
Union,and should have nothing to do with change of the institutions of the
Gettysburg	beginning of the end of the war, a huge mistake by Lee and the
Copperheads	pro-confederate notherners
Scalawags	pro-union southerners
Carpetbaggers	Unioner settling in reconstructed South
George McClellan	War democrat, commander of the Army of the Potomic, against
freeing of slaves, replaced by Lincoln
Benjamin Butler	captured Annapolis Maryland, slaves Contraband of War, leader
of Army in Louisiana, political general, Lincolnical reconstruction, driven out
by organized violence called the Miss>= Plan molded after White League 
symbolic of Radical Rec. No man is fit to govern another."
Marshall Twitchell	Union officer, Freemen Breau agent, carpetbagger, settled
in Red River valey of Louisiana.  Employed blacks in his business, provided
schools, sold land.  Elected to many offices during Radical Reconstruction. 
Persecuted by White League, all his famile, except mother killed, droved from
Louisiana by violence.
Possible Questions                                                          
History 4506
Final Exam                                                                       
Prof. Logsdon
Major Points

1. Write a coherent and unified essay on Abraham Lincoln

2. Demonstrate and explain the influence of Andrew Johnson on the formulation
of the Congressional Reconstruction program.  Why was he impeached?
	By April of 1866, Congress was forced by the actions of Andrew Johnson to
come forth with their own Reconstrcution plan, the 14th Amendment to the
Constitution.  These events lead up to this:
- 1865, Congress not in session, Johnson in charge
- announces pardon of the Confederacy
- Reconstruct states, first North Carolina, then all
- provisional governor
- future oath
- 50%
- require abolish slavery, renounce debt, reqial secession ordinance
- pass 13th
- by December, all except Texas has held elections, Johnson ready to re-admit
- Congress in session, thinging Johnson invites them to participate
- to protect freemen rights, passes Freedmen Bureau and Civil Rights bills
	- Johnson vetos, Congress in severe shock, cooperation ended
	- Joint Committee on Reconstruction, political reality of 45%, 20%, 35%
- 14th Amendment, reduce representatives by denied suffrage %
- becomes primaryh issue of '66 elections.
	- Johnson shows his true intentions with formation of National Union Party
- race riots in South, New Orleans is worst
- Republican victory marks turning point of reconstruction
- with Johnson still interfering, radicals gain greater influence
- March

3. Charles Sumner once declared in referring to Congressional and Presidential
action in behalf of black Americans that 

4. Briefly recount the development of the reconstruction policies of Lincoln
and Johnson.  Explain any differences and speculate on the motivatives of each
	- Lincoln
	- Plans always in flux
- reconstruction takes place during war, military necessity
- no states reconstructed, in part because of opposition by black LA
- after war, will anounce new plan
- Banks plan not perfect, moving to black vote
- Johnson
- announces pardon of the Confederacy
- Reconstruct states, first North Carolina, then all
- provisional governor
- future oath
- 50%
- require abolish slavery, renounce debt, repeal secession
- pass 13th
- deeply racest, anti-plantation owner, courting northen Democrats
- and the South with idea of forming his own political party.
- fights Republican efforts toward reconstruction 

5.  In what sense was New Orleans a peculiar place in the South both before the
Civil War and during the war?  What impact did Reconstruction have upon the
black community of the city?
New Orleans Unique
- largest city in the south, by far
- largest free black population in US
- free blacks both native and Creole
- captured in tacked without damage by the Union
- Reconstruction starts first here and ends last
Impact of Reconstruction

6.  What were the major gains of emancipation and Reconstruction for black
people in Louisiana?  What were the major limitations?
- universial male suffrage
- attemps to end racial segreation
- desegregated public schools, public accomodations
- blacks lead Reconstruction agenda
- free labor
- some land ownership
- Land reform
- lasts only till 1900

7. Explain the conservative reaction in Louisiana through the life of Marshall
Marshall Harvey Twitchell, carpetbager, Freedmen

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