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Black Movements and Black Messiahs


Aferican American History from Civil War to Current,

Grade: 60% - two exams
5% - Book Review (2)
35% - Final Exam

1st Exam, Jun 24, 10:20 to 11:20, no class
2nd Exam, Jul 1, 10:20 to 11:20, class afterwards
Final, Jul 6
chose 2 of 4 Essay, chose 6 of 9 identifies

Frederick Douglas greatest from 19th Century, Narative of a runaway slave written by himself
Martin Luther King greatest form 20th Century


freedom quality or state of not being constrained or corsets in one's choice or rights

equality quality of state of being equal

prejudice preconceived judgments or opinions unreasonable predetermine for or against something. Opinions formed without due knowledge of a subject.

racism the assumption that psychological and cultural traits and capacities are determined by biological race, and that one race differs decisively from another, coupled with the belief of the inherent superiority of one race over another. The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others.

Messiahs An expected deliverer or a savior, or one who is accepted as or claims to be a leader. A leader who is regarded as or professes to be a savior or liberator

Do movements make messiah's or do messiah's make movements ... Douglas, Washington, Galdie, MLK Jr., Jessy Jackson, Faracon ... Du Bois rejected being a messiah.

Without slaves there would not have been a Civil War in 1861. Seceded States feared that Union would interfere with slavery. Lincoln's objective was to render Union whole again ... whatever it takes.

Harry Tougman , black woman, let hundreds of slaves to freedom, criticized Lincoln for not moving fast enough on freeing slaves... told snake story.

Frederick Douglas is important figure before and after the war, in 1861 pushes to free slaves ... why not know ... meets question of freeing slaves head on ... said ... let us alone ... don nothing for us, with us ... give us a chance

Lincoln is undecided on what to do with slaves, proposes expatriation ... sends some back to Haiti ... "I might be a slow walker, but I don't walk backward."

To many blacks, freedom meant not being compelled to work for someone else.

In 1862 congress is ahead of President when it votes to abolish slavery in District of Columbia, and in western territory, bans sale of slaves across state lines.

Emancipation Proclamation on Jan 1, 1863 ... slavery continued to be legal in North and in occupied territory. Freed slaves as a measure of war, accepts blacks into Army.

In New Orleans the best educated, wealthest, free blacks send petation demanding full citizenship ... Lincoln considers extending vote to educated blacks ... leads to first black convention (Equal Rights Convention) ... FD said work will not end until raseism is ended ... ending slavery without ending raseism will not work ... we must work for full citizenship. Resolutions passed: 1. Right to come and go. 2. Fight to vote 3. Right to public education (seperate or not, only in New Orleans is there mixed schools. 4. Right to hold public office 5. Right to be judged, treated like whites 6. Right to land for the landless without compensation.

There was some question Lincoln's authority to free slaves, 13th amendment is passed to make sure ... Lincoln is killed, Andrew Johnson (Tenn native, refused to desert Union, military governor of Tenn, symbolic VP, war democrat.

Johnson states that he wants to punish South, but quickly changes his mine, 180 turn ... announces general pardon to all except politician and wealthy Southerns. Reconstructs southern states ... only 2 requirements (1) pass resolutions making cession null and void (2) ratify 13th amendment.

Freedman's Bureau ... part of the War Department ... to exist for only 1 year after end of war ... could not reverse effects of 250 years of slavers in only 1 year.

Charollette Forten ... well to do, Boston black woman goes south to teach freedmen and is rejected ... taken for the mistress of plantation owner ...

Black Codes are passed by Southern States, in Louisiana called "Argicultural Labors" required to return to farmer plantations and offer services 12-13 half hand, 14-15 3/4 hand, > 16 full hand ... $1.00 per day plus living quarters. Freedmen could not leave without permission, no visitors, could not resuse work, could own property, sue, give testomany for white, not against.

Should slave owners been compensated for freed slaves???


Black codes ...
with Congress out of secession until Dec'65 ... Johnson is free to reconstruct states his own way ... two questions ... What was the status of farmer Confederate States? What should be done about the 3/5 rule? Southern stats would gain 15 additional seats in congress if all men would be counted. 3/5 compromise stated that in Slave states, male slaves over 21 years would be counted as 3/5 person in determining congressional representation ... compromise was that north did not want to count slaves at all ... south wanted to count all slaves.

When congress returned in Dec'65 ... elections in the south had already been held in south. Because of Republican fears of demo gains in congress and because of violence reported in the south against Blacks ... republican members of congress met and decided not to seat any of the congressmen elected in the South during 1865.

In Jan '66 congress passes Freedman Bureau bill extending for two years the Freedman's Bureau headed by Gen O.O. Howard , vetoed by Johnson saying that Blacks, now free, should be able to make it on their own. This pushes congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1866, provided the 1st defination of national citizenship ... all persons born or naturalized are automaticly citizens of both state and nation (except Indians) ... spells out that blacks have same rights as whites,to sue, give testamony, buy/sell/lease property, did not include voting rights or education. Johnson vetos ths bill also ... pushing more moderate republicans to turn against him to overfide veto ... congress repasses Freedman Bill over veto. Because of fear that a future congress may repeal all or part of these bills, congress passes over veto the 14th Amendment (most important amendment to constatution) providing: National citizenship ... benefits in every state ... federal responsibility to enforce, States cnanot discriminate against citizens based on Race, or previous condition of servitude, states cound conpensate slave owners, no pension for confederate solgers. Congress stipulates that southers states must radify befor being re-admitted. With Tenn the only state radifing ... the 14th fails radification. Johnson suggest that congress is illegally composed because of excluding of Southern states ... Election of 1866 ... waveing of "Blody Shirt" . Republicans gain a veto proof majority, 4-1 in Senate, 3-1 in House.

Radical Reconstruction "Reconstruction Acts of 1867"
No legal southern governments
Consolidate 10 states into 5 military districks (LA & Tx in 5th Military District)
Major General appointed to restore order, right to govern by military rule, suppress violence
Conduct voter registration of all eligable males (21 and over) who take loyality Oath that they never partisipated or were pardoned (1st blacks with voting rights)
Voters would elect delegates to constitutional conventions ...
Valid election would be one where 50% of elegable voters vote (to insure that blacks were not prevented from voting)
Constitution approved by congress
Radify 14th Ammendment

Passed over Johnson's veto, but Johnson delays emplamentation until Jul of 1867 ... congress gives Grant powers to appoint military governors ... extra legal

In 1867-68, Louisiana passes one of the most progressive constititions including public institutions, schools, trenaportation, hotels, results in the freest most honest election in Jan '68

New Orleans tribune, Jean B. Rondanez, Louis C. Rondanez support ... comes within 2 vots of nominating a black governor ...

Frederick Douglas (messiah) assertive without being aggressive, overly optimistic, identified with Republicans, did not allow himslf to become only spokesman, got involved in Freemans Bank failier (loan to J. Coke defult)

1864 - First Civil Rights Convention

1869 in Washington, first convention with national scope, first with Southern Blacks, platform ...
Extention of intergration to sociaty as a whole ???, black churches, schools
Racial Solidarity ... FD false appeal ... don't abandon rights because others will not grant them

Dec 1869, Colored National labor Convention in DC
Rights of all labors to orginize
FD - every laborer is a capitalist
protest exclusion of blacks from sill labor

By 1871 Blacks have already reached their high point of political involvment.

Hirom Revels ... first black congressman, free black from N.C., AME minister ... wame seat as Jefferson Davis

by 1869 KKK is already active in using force to deny rights to Blacks. Congress in 1871 passes the Ku Klux Klan Act

Civil Rights Act of 1875 is passed by congress, but is stripped of its public education provisions

Last major convention was in Ohio in 1875, Black Newspaper Publishers pushing self-reliance, is good idea, but how does it get funded. How far do you advance the whole Black Race?

FD -- remove all barriers to give blacks a chance to succeed or fail, equality of oppertunity, equality of results?

By end of 1875, blacks reached the top of political accomplishments ... supportbegins todeclin in congress for freedmen,

The election of 1876, Rutherford B. Hayes v. Samuel J. Tilden end in an electorial college draw with 185 needed to elect, Hayes has 165, Tilden 184, and 20 in dispute. The Compromise of 1877 gave the election to Hayes, in turn he promisses (1) to remove all remaining troops from South, (2) not to send troops back, (3) two cabinate appointments from south, (4) one southerner to Supreem Court
John M. Harlan is appointed, serves for 30 years, turns out to be least consertive member of court.

Important court decesions:

Slaughterhouse Case , New Orleans grants minolopy to one business ... suit filed under 14th amendment claiming the state violated rights ... court found in a very narrow interpatation that the 14th did not grant any new rights, just extended to blacks same rights as whites.

US v. Reese - indited for viliating 15th amendment ... denied to accept poll tax from blacks, thus dening them the right to register to vote. Court upholds Reese ... saying that 15th did not guarantee anybody right to vote ... opens door for litercy tests ect.

1883 Civil Rights Cases - court rules that 1875 Civil Rights act is unconstitutional because 15th amendment was not designed to prevent individuals from discriminating, just to prevent governments ... Harlan is only decenting vote ...


US v Harris - an interpretation of KKK Act (allowed president to use federal marshalls in states to defend citizen's rights) Harris is convicted of violations of 14th, 15th, and KKK Act (could not in disguise deprive citizenship rights), claimed that Federal Government did not have rights to protect citizenship rights ... Supreme Court ruled that most citizens rights were protected by state not Federal government, hence KKK Act was unconstitutional.

US v Harris, 1883 Civil Rights cases, US v Reese, Slaughterhouse Case ... put Blacks in a catch 22 ... without the Federal government to help protect rights, with state governments denying their rights, without the ability to vote in state elections ... there was no one to turn to for help/protection. Laws were not enforced, Supreme Court narrow interpretation of civil rights laws, were leaving Negro without protection.

By 1877 and the end of Reconstruction ... 94% of blacks lived in the South, did not own land, few had gone west to homestead ... 50% of cowboys were black (poor pay) ... most were tenant farmers or share croppers ... New Orleans was an exception where many blacks worked as longshoremen (a well paid job). By this time, even though most continued to vote, in rural areas votes were controlled by whites ... by 1900 most had lost their rights to vote. The little gains that Blacks had made during reconstruction were being lost ... taken away by fear or rule of laws.

In 1883, Fredrecik Douglas in a speech assesses progress of Freedmen ... considering the obstacles in our path, we have made considerable progress, better than could be expected, but it could have been so much more. Douglas has become disenchanted with the Republicans and with presidents Hasse and Chester Author.

Slavery has been replaced with peniage ...

Exodustus Movement when many Blacks began to move out of the South (to Kansas and New York) alarm is raised and Southern states begin to pass peniage laws preventing an individual form changing locations if he were in debt. For many tenant farmers, this would effectively eliminating chance of moving.

In 1880's began a unique movement to unite farm workers called Populace Revolt. This was brought about by the rising cost of transportation and the falling price of crops ... workers began to organize into large unions. This was opposed by governments who were increasingly controlled by big business. At the same time that the 14th amendment was becoming ineffective in protecting individuals rights it was being used more and more to protect the right of corporations (legal persons).

The Populace Revolt - movement - was at first a great success, especially in the west and north. It was opposed in the south by "Bourbon Democrats" ( the ruling elite). These conservative controlled government reacted to the Populace movement by passing laws making it illegal for white - black coalitions ... separate labor unions, public accomidations, etc. This strategy did succeed in stopping the successes of the Populace Revolt.

The discontent, and problems with labor unions, strikes in the north, lead to increased attempts by conservative governments to gain control by separating the razes.

In Louisiana in 1890, the legislature passes "Separate Car Law" , requiring the railroads to provide separate cars for black and white. The legislature, composed of 20% black representatives is divided on the issue, even the blacks are divided in support or opposition. The Railroads are opposed because they do not want to be responsible for deciding who sits in which car. New Orleans large "Free Black" population are strongly opposed. A Citizens Committee is organized to test the legality of such a law, because the Supreme Court in 1883 had ruled that individuals could not be prevented for discrimination in accomadations, but governments could not discriminate.

In 1892 Homer Plessy (Plessy v Fergerson) , a light color black man who in the past had been seated in the white only car, with advance notice to the railroad, purchased ticket and when he went to to seated in white car, was ordered off train and arrested. Guilty in Judge Fergerson's court, upheld in Louisiana Supreme Court. US Supreme Court originally would not hear case. This case did not receive much support from the Black community, but if let stand would be an important decision. Albran Tourgee (farmer governor, Freedman Bureau agent) agrees to handle case for no fee. In May 1993, in a 7 - 1 decision, the court found that the Louisiana law did not violate the 14th amendment as long as the accomadations were substantially equal

At first, this decision did not receive much attention, it was not widely reported in the press. The only dissenting vote on the court was Judge Harlen , who spoke out called it irrational, saying it would make as much sense to have separate cars for Republicans and Democrats. The constitution must be color blind, the harm done this day will cause irreparably damage, will worsen, not make better, race relations because it will become increasingly more difficult to have free open discussion of problems affecting all people.

This decision was the beginning of legislated racial segregation, separate but equal.

Up from Slavery, Booker T. Washington
Born a slave about 1859 in Virgin, soon moved to West Virgin, lived tough life, accused early a taste for knowledge, somewhat overly opportunistic toward opportunities for blacks based on his own experiences. Doesn't admit that he himself was exceptional, had an undying faith in America. Supporter of Joham Peslelozzi (learn by doing). Founding president of Tuskegee Industrial Institute.

Problems: Over simplified view, tunnel vision, did not see evil in people who helped him, thought that the best people in South were not racist, under estimated the importance of a Classical education (education should make you more humane). People whom he considered heroes were not well educated, Andrew Caragee, Vanderbilt. Often presented Blacks in bad light in order to raze money. Was not concerned with voting rights, thought that Blacks should have been better educated before being given right to vote. He over simplified the effects or racism.

Over all, he did more good that bad.


If slave owners would have been compensated, do you feel that it would have made any difference?

In the 19th century, not many concessions were made to the freedman ... one was limited "industrial training" ... it was thought that a practical education which provided moral discipline would lead to stable jobs, giving a feeling of economic independence ... would lead to a docile and stable labor force. By the end of the decade, with the appearance of and support for separate institutions, there was increasing racist legislation, and teaching that put forth evidence that blacks were inferior to whites.

To counter this began movements in the black community to accept separate but equal as a way of life, -- were we Negro American, or American Negroes. Many in the black community began calling for a return to Africa, but not only was this impractical ... this was also when the European Colonial powers were beginning the colonizing of Africa ... it would not be the place to go for self dignity.

This was the beginning of an accomplishments to separate but equal ... and more and more the color line begins to divide Negroes ... if whites had power, maybe near white was better than black

In 1890, the Mississippi Plan is passed to disenfranchise blacks, this was the first successful effort to link literacy to voting rights, it required the ability to read and interpit, and it eliminated large numbers of black voters, eventually blacks stopped trying to register. South Carolina followed in 1895, and in Louisiana in 1898 ... Louisiana had a long history to the resistance to public education ... and its literacy laws disenfranchise large numbers of white and black voters, especially in the northern part of the state. In addition La. required taxable property of $300, and continual residents for 2 years in the state, 1 year in parish and 6 months in percent, grandfather in were those eligible to vote in 1867 if ancestor in 1867. In 1896 there were 134,000 registered blacks and 167,00 whites, in 1900 only 5,000 blacks and 82,000 whites. In 1910 only 897 blacks were registered voters.

Also violence against blacks increased in the decade of 1890 with 1,200 known lynchings. In 1895 was the year of BTW Atlanta Compromise and the the year Frederick Douglas dies.

In a speech in 1894, Frederick Douglas relates his filling about the state of black peoples in the US
is disturbed about the formation of all Black institutions, about race pride, about the formation of a nation within a nation, our union is our weakness. Blacks should yield as little as possible, cannot legitimate what is illegitimate
In a speech to young blacks, they are disappointed when he tells them that things will get much worse before they get better, to continue to agitate, to insist to have the same rights as all men.

To sum up his life, Frederick Douglas was persistent, broad minded, objective, had a strong sense of self and his race, worked to make things better, not to make separate legitimate, that black will need to solve their own problems. The ending of slavery without end racism is futile. Don't let someone else define who you are. A truly amazing man, self-educated -- mastered the use of language, spoken and written. He was an advocate of equality ... not a black advocate.

How free do you want to be? To whom do you want to be equal?

W.E.B Du Bois , from the north, western Mass., not poor, happy child, active in school, enjoyed competing and beating whites in education, has his eyes opened to the state of Blacks when he goes south to Fisk ... realizes how narrow, limited life and opportunity is for blacks, learns southern black culture. Is accepted to Harvard and becomes the 1st black PHD ... does scholarly study of black slave trade, travels and studies in Europe. Complete a very important study of Negro family in Philadelphia, many thought a professional study of black families could not be done, but he proved them wrong. Believed in a liberal education for blacks which put him at odds to BTW.


Do I think the advancement of Blacks was as for as could have been expected under the circumstances?

accommodation to separate but equal complicates issues for blacks.

In 1899 case of Cummings v County Board of Education in Georgia, a black high school is converted to an elementary school. Suit is filed asking that the white high school be closed until a new black school could be built. The Supreme Court, with Harlen writing for the majority rejected the suit saying that blacks did not ask for benefits, how would it benefit anyone to close the white high school. After this support for black schools is lessened through the south. In Louisiana, grades above six are eliminated.

Du Bois is saying that the plague of the 20th century is the color line, BTW continues to believe that through education things could be made better.

Only through private donations is Black education kept alive. Julius Rosenwald establishes a fund to support black education in South, but in many cases this money would be just substitute for public funds. In New Orleans, there were no black public high schools until 1918, less than 1 per parish in 1956, 1/3 of parishes did not have black high schools.

At the University of Virginia, De Bois studies of Negro Families. The assumption was that in 1900 most Afro-Americans were descendants of West Africa, and that West Africa social structure of 1900 century has not changed from 1st state in 1500 at the beginning of the American slave trade.

W.Africans were clusters of family clans ... marriages were arranged, purchased, by the father for his son when the bride was about 11 or 13. Polygamy was widespread with the number of wives dependent of ability to support, marriage occurred within certain groups except for royalty, divorce was almost nonexistent, unless wife was unfaithful. In the family, primary binding was with the mother, children of same father were full brothers, even first cousins. Most Africans worked the land, some were artisans, most goods were held in common.

During slavery, what happened to black families ... not till 1840 did the number of black women equal men, there were no legal marriages, there were informal arrangements, the father did not provide for child support, probably did not live with them, could not protect children especially for slave owners. Went from father at top to family without father. The change in family meant that men and women from different background became "Family", not blood relative. Owners provide food, supplemented by what little could be gathered of produced on Sunday's.

After slavery ... most Negroes retained the "Family", marriages occurred much later in life than whites, blacks were more likely to divorce... relationships were fragile, black women worked more that white women, many black women had children from more than one man.

In W.Africa and in America, blacks tended to live in close to one another, have few belongs, the house for mostly for sleeping, little personal hygiene

Du Bois concludes that the greatest impact of slavery was the effect on strong family ties.

James Walden Johnson , The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man
for a black to live as white is in some ways understandable, but is also a tragedy ... to do so is to deny ones own family ... to be forced to do so just to obtain rights that should already be one's own makes it a double tragedy


Du Bois at Atlanta University, studies Negro Family, Negro Education, Negro Church

Niagara Movement , organized in 1905
met in Canada because could not find accommodations in New York, 20 delegates, intellectuals from 14 states, only 5 from South, 400 members at its peak, published The Moon, The Horizon , edited by Du Bois until 1910, was a call for the talented tenth, best of Black intellectuals to develop strategy for ending segregation.
Agenda --
1. Claim birth right, freedom of speech and freedom to criticize.
2. Supported unfettered, unsubsidized press
3. Manhood suffrage, to participate fully on the same basis as whites ... NOW
4. Reject Afro-American in favor of Negro-American, want to be considered American
5. abolish of class system solely based on race or color.
6. recognize of human brotherhood
7. recognize of classical education as the right of all
8. Universal common schools for all, High school or technical school for those who want it, and colleges for those who would benefit ... supported by federal government
9. Belief in dignity of labor, for all
10. United effort in courageous leadership, to continually protest denial of rights to blacks.
Principal goal was of movement was to demonstrate their good will to all. Du Bois felt like a missionary

Springfield, Ill ... home of Abraham Lincoln ... race riot was a shock to all

Mary White Overton brings together meeting of progressive reformers ... on the 46th anniversary of Emancipation Proclamation ... 1-1-1909 ...
Feb 12, centennial of Lincoln's birth - first meeting. What would Lincoln think?
Mostly northern whites/blacks invited.

Formed NAACP , most of the original officers are white ... BTW declines ... De Bois becomes editor of paper ... many blacks would not join until after BTW dies in 1914
some officers: Oswald Garrison Villard, Mary White Ovington, Moorfield Story
Villard provided free office space in New York in his newspaper's building ... resistance to using Colored as part of name ... was intended to include all non whites in America. Branch officers were established with equal numbers of whites and blacks ... at first reluctant to have offices in South because it was felt it would be difficult to get white members.

Du Bois becomes editor of newspaper "The Crisis" ... insisted on final say on content ... through its pages, he shapes the positions for the NAACP. After 1 year, about 10,000 members, after 10 years, 100,000 members provided an audience for Du Bois, opened publication to black artisans, gathered and published local community news.

Six goals:
1. End mob violence
2. End discrimination in public places based on race or color
3. Win back franchise for Blacks
4. Equal employment opportunity for all
5. Public education
6. Freedom to come and go

Presidential elections of 1912 proved to be of some problem: Du Bois and others had become disenchanted with the Republican party making southern republicans white ... and would end up supporting Woodrow Wilson. Du Bois did not believe an educated person could be racist, and Wilson said he would insist that justice would be done for Negroes. Wilson's soon shows that he is a true southern racist, he removes all pretense of running a non-biast government ... segregates federal workplaces, civil service, post office, streetcars, public buildings, courts. BTW is quick to say I told you so ... Now most northern states follows Willson's lead

Now follows a wave of anti-miscegenation laws, with Louisiana requiring mixed marriages to divorce.

World War I

Charles Young (West Point) would have become the first black general in the army, but he is denied this when he is found to have high blood pressure, NAACP helps him to be reinstated, sent to Liberia, dies of malaria.

With the war in Europe raging ... an increase in manufacturing jobs stimulates a northern migration of many blacks. This provides now job opportunities for Blacks, but causes a housing crisis. The Urban League is founded in part to help southern blacks adjust to life in overcrowded northern cities. UL taught skills in basic house keeping, provided vocational training, health care, need for doctors.

When America enters, NAACP protests and overturns an Army ruling that no more than 2 regiments of Calvary and infantry can be black. Only 630 black officers, blacks commanded by whites. There was a general fear that if blacks got a taste of freedom in Europe, they would return to demand their rights. Some units saw action, US 369 was first to reach Rhine River ... did not loose any men in 180 days of fighting ... received highest metals from France. By the end of the war 20,000 blacks had served.

Du Bois editorial of Jan '19 insists that since Blacks had gone to Europe to fight for freedom, they deserved nothing less in the US ... the Post Office hold the issue ... and he is indited on charges of subversive activity. A. Phylip Randolph is convicted for subversion for his articles in the Messenger calling the war a Capitalist War, not for freedom, for profit.

Biggest impact of the war was the relocation of a large percentage of rural southern Blacks to northern cities ... where they would slowly regain political power.

Test Friday, 11 to 12 ... Blue Books

BTW dies in 1915 ...

by 1920 NAACP membership is 100,000 ... a fraction of all blacks, they had already begun to win some symbolic victories in court ... this was a strategy suggested by DuBois to build up and use case law as a way to overturn segregatation laws.
- 1915 invalidates the grandfather clause in Oklahoma in US v Guinn
- 1917 Buchana v Warley in Louisville, found that Segregated housing laws was in violation of equal protection clause of 14th amendment.
- 1920, 75 branches, criticized as a middle class organization ... Du Bois said he had to happen.

During its first 15 years, the NAACP expanded, organized, but did not have any striking accomplishments.

During this time, NAACP chief critic is UNIA

Marcus Garvey ... form Jamaica, middle class, privileged ... at twelve looses white girl friend, has change big effect, a printer, politician, travels to London, visits with blacks from many of Europe's colonies and other freedom fighters, becomes upset that the Negro has no country of their own, home land, flag, forms Universal Negro Improvement Association . Realizes that to succeed he will need support from American blacks. Corresponds with BTW ... in 1914 in New York ... organizes UNTA local which quickly controlled by local political types ... his popularity probably led to his downfall, as he became subject to flattery. A suit charged him with mail fraud in a fund rising effort for a company that was buying ships to be use in relocating blacks to another country. Convected, sent to prison, pardoned by Wilson and deported. Went to England, the movement without its leader colapsed.


Du Bois - only in recent history has race been a mater of conflict ...
accommodation is an attempt to legitimize that which cannot be legitimize ...
issue is discrimination based solely on race or color

Post WWI
the makings of two separate black cultures in North after the war. There was wide-spread discrimination, but many more opportunities that in the south. The culture of north was very different than in south ... dialect, churches, degree of literacy , personal hygiene, indoor pluming. From slavery till WWI, biggest change for blacks was education, in south it was grossly neglected, did not have same appreciation as in north ... saw education as a junction of work, schools closed during planting and harvesting, few skilled blacks.

During Roaring 20's ... rich got richer, poor got children

The Harlem Renaissance - mid 20's to mid 30's ... an American event ... proved there was within the Black community an ability to support themselves
Du Bois, Langston Hughes, James Waldon Johnson ... intended to express ourselves, like me or don't like me ... free individuals ... mecca for writers and painters, poets and many other artists ...proud enough to use white English or black English ... leadership came for not only America, also for Europe showing that others could learn from watching them. Although only a small, tiny fraction of Negro-Americans took part, this movement would have a great impact in future.

During 20's, life for most people was hard, black and white, even though there was a larger middle class, numbers of poor people had increased ... farmers as a whole did not fair well. The problems of the 20's was too few owned too much, to many owned to little. By 1927, most Americans who could afford to buy already owned.
--- partly caused '29 crash and the depression.

The depression ... poor, especially city poor, who had little to start with, lost more during the depression. Jobs which were traditionally left to blacks, because they were considered to be undersireable jobs were being demanded by poor, unemployed whites.

A. Philip Randoph was able to organize one of the few black labor unions, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and maids, the first black union

NAACP ... first three executive VP were white, John R. Shillady was last white VP, when in Austin Texas, he is attacked and beaten, it is realized that it is not an advantage. James Waldon Johnson is first black Executive VP ('20 - '31). There a few symbolic victories during this time ... Nixon v Herndon ... 1927 successful challenge to Texas law the provided for a white only Democratic Party ... this is soon subverted by disbanding Texas State Democratic Party. At a 1928 National Conference to access progress since 1865 it is found that though education may be the best success story, in the future advances in education will need to be even more impressive.

During depression, NAACP lost half its members, this cause problems and friction for De Bois who would ultimately leave. This depression was different than previous one because a much larger percentage of people not lived in cities. The suffering of people was more obvious and more severe. One result was the appearance of a group of heavenly Messiahs ... religion provides ... escape ... meaning ... the more suffering the move saved

George Baker - Father Divine ; claimed divinity ... free food ... lodging ...clothes
Charles Emnanuel - Sweet Daddy Grace
Timothy Drew - supporter of Ala, whites by nature were devils
F.S Cherry - blacks were true Jews, God is black, intoxication is for pleasure of man
W. D. Fard - black Muslims ... Elisa Muhammad (Poole) ... Malcolm X
Mother Katherine - New Orleans, left Catholic

NAACP - James Waldon Johnson was close to Du Bois
Walter White becomes Executive secretory in 1930, more outgoing than James Waldon Johnson, blond, blue eyes, could pass for white, use this to his advantage when in investigations. Du Bois did not get along with White ... thought he was crude, not intellectual. Because of loss of funds, Du Bois had to go through White to get funds to continue to operate "The Crisis"

Mordecai Johnson - first black president of Howard University ... determined to make Howard a great University... looking to establish a first rate facility, expand curriculum ... hires William Charles Huston , from privileged background, PHD Harvard, become firs dean of Howard Law School ... Johnson had become aware of the fact that black lawyers were not well trained, their briefs were substandard ... a strategy is taking shape ... how to overturn "Separate but Equal", Plessy, the first step is to educate Black lawyers.

One odd effect of the '30's depression was that in making things worse for blacks make it possible for the evolution of this new strategy ... whites wanting to take previously all black jobs.

Because of a promised $100,000 grant from the (Charles) Garland Fun d (for the support of liberal or radical causes ... and with the first $25,000 installment in hand with the expectation of receiving rest ... commissions a study of Education in South.

With this funding .... NAACP hires Nathan R. Morgold ... close to Houston ...
1931 findings ... of the 17 states that had separate black / white schools ... 10 had laws that provided for equal separate schools, but did not provide them ... 7 states did not have laws at all, but still did not provide equal schools ... the 10 were in violation of their own laws ... the 7 were in violation of federal laws. Margold would eventually become US attorney, then Federal Judge.

Houston continues to examine these facts, but knows that he cannot move too fast, cannot risk loosing a suit ... he needs the right case, the right attorney, the right court, the right plaintiff.

Thurgood Marshall enters Howard law school in 1930, is challenged by Houston about why he didn't attend school in his own state ... a white only law school ... makes him realize that there is no good reason why he couldn't attend University of Maryland, except that he is black ... never forgets this ... says it changed his life ... Graduates in 1933 with top honors ... meets Alexander Tureaud in New Orleans ... active in the Maryland NAACP run by Dr. Lillie Mae Jackson ... soon won a case based on the first amendment protecting the right to picket as a form of free speech. Becomes attorney for NAACP ... $25 per year ... $5.00 day while on a case.

1935 - wins first case for NAACP against University of Maryland ... state court orders admission of black student finding Maryland in violation of 14th Amendment ... state decides not to appeal ... legislature makes noises about funding a black law school ... but never does.

Marshall begins accepting many cases involving teacher pay inequality ... one case he does loose is Alston v School Board of Norfolk , court rules that there was no right to sue because a contract had been accepted ... overturned on appeal.

This is the beginnings of a long evolution of a revolution

22 Jun94

Early history of NAACP is as a patron client ...

Depression is catalyst for change ... federal government becomes much more involved than ever before in providing care to population ... nutrition ... prenatal postnatal care ... well baby care ... nothing like care being given the white population, but plus over what had been provided before. Organizations like WPA, PWP, NRA, etc. provided discriminative service, but better than before. One project of note was the Federal Writers Project , part of WPA ... helped many involved in Harlem Renaissance, and recorded much information about blacks ... black folk stories and poetry, blues, jazz, gospel. The CCC employed 3 million, of which 75,000 were black. Roosevelt provided some hope for blacks with more political appointments that in recent time, was often pushed by his wife to do more ... sometimes he would resist. Does appoint Mary McLeod Bethune NYA part of the "Black Cabinet"

Worse days of depression came after 1931 ... in July '31, 7% unemployed, in '33, 20% unemployed, average work week was 21 hours ... 50% black unemployment. In order to shrink the work force ... Federal Government began to enforce child labor laws, a positive side effect of Depression. Support to states increased, school lunch programs, books ... attendance increased, % of high school graduates increased ... support for disabled and elderly also increased.

Communist party would try to use depression to attract members, and would especially target blacks.

CIO as a force in labor was increased during depression ... John L. Lewis , president, would organize all workers into one union, not by craft as was the practice of AFL , CIO would actively recruit black workers, as a way to keep them from being used as strike beakers. Especially in northern cities, CIO became more active in politics (than AFL) ... encouragement all members to vote for labor ticket. The mass of Blacks did not join unions, most still lived in southern rural towns.

During 1930's, because of increase in tensions, there was an increase in lynchings.

Mush controversy revolved around the Scottsboro Boys , in 1933 ... Landmark decision. 9 black boys were arrested when found on a train with white girls, who claimed that they were raped ... no evidence was ever produced of their guilt. NAACP is approached to provide council for them, but would decline, communists offer services of Clarence Darrow, who asks White (of NAACP) who advises not to accept ... without an attorney, found guilty and sentenced to death in electric chair. The communists make an international issue of this case, on appeal, the Supreme Court orders a new trial, finding that the defendants did not have adequate counsel. On retrial, all are sentenced to life, all are released before 1950. Their case was made difficult because of confessions one indicating the other.

Other Civil Rights organizations

An effect of the depression was another movement of southern blacks into northern cities ... giving blacks in north more political power. Oscar DePriest (Chicago) will become first black elected as alderman, state legislator, US Representative. DePriest, and other black elected officials, would be expected to represent not only their own districts, but all Blacks in America. DePriest is an execlent speaker and would often speak out against segregation.

Because of the popularity of Roosevelt, blacks would now change their party affilation to Democrats. 1932 presidential election is last time majority of blacks would vote republican. In '34 election, Arthor Mitchell, black democrat would replace DePriest in congress. In '36, 60% of blacks would vote democrat. With more opportunities opening up in north, more would leave south, increasing black political power, electing more blacks to office. There would be few gains in South, as democratic party would be 99% white ... and without a Republican president (13 of 17 presidents since Lincoln were Republican) ... Blacks who had some control of southern Republican parties would loose what little advantage they enjoyed.

Even though individuals suffered greatly during depression, indirectly Blacks were beginning to make gains, in labor, politics, education ...

The strategy to overturn Plessy ...
Charles H. Tompson - publisher of Journal of Negro Education, Harvard University, almost alone, begins to survey of libraries at Black Schools, programs offered ... etc, published many guest editorials discussing separate (but equal) schools.
William Hastie , father was federal civil servant ... did not submit to separate accomindations, would not ride bus, sent to school in DC, Amherst, Mass ... gifted scholar, athlete ... Harvard Law School, editor of Law Review, went to work at Houston's Law Firm, "Margold Report"

Thomas R. Hocutt , North Carolina, applied for admission to pharmacy school, required recommendation from principal of last school ... would not certify that he did, Hastie represents Hocutt, he does not make a very good witness, the school principal appears testifies that he attended school, judge finds that Hocutt is not qualified to attend professional school, but warns state that if a qualified student would have to be allowed to attend an all white school if there was not a acceptable black school. Hastie feeling are reaffirmed, that they must have the right plaintiff, the right case, the right judge, the right court, because they can not afford to loose.

What to do with the Margold Report ...Houston suggests that they should pursue changing "Separate but Equal" in the courts, De Bois in against such action not, saying that it is not the time, that Blacks will continue to life in black neighborhoods, to attend black schools, and it would be better to pursue better schools than desecrated schools. Du Bois would end up leaving NAACP for 15 years.

Charles H. Thompson, 1935, litigation against separate schools occurred 113 times in 29 states, 44 cases razed question of Segregate schools, and 44 times it was affirmed, even though some states operated separate schools without laws providing for it. Decided that the burden of proof is on Negro to prove that separate schools were harmful.

Du Bois continues to push for first rate black schools, sounding like he is now taking BTW's position, in his lifetime, Frederick Douglas never gave up the fight. One cannot legitimize what would otherwise not be legitimate.

Though is was De Bois, in 1910 that suggested what would alter be the successful strategy ... build up sufficient case law against separate but equal.

Higher Education presented the best chance for getting a favorable judgment. No southern school had ever operated a black professional school. Missouri, a border state, is chosen, Lloyd Gaines ... qualified honor student, applies for admission to University of Missouri, and is turned down. The chess match that is the effort to overturn Plessy is exciting, not often does constitutional scholar have the opportunity to create new case law. The University & State admit that Gaines is qualified, if and when there is enough demand, a black law school would be opened. Offer Gaines a partial scholarship to school in another state.

Gains Principal , NAACP files suit, on appeal to the Supreme Court gets a favorable ruling ... State must allow a qualified black to attend white school when there is not a black school to attend. Gains disappears ... never to be see again ...

Response of Southern states ... talk of farming regional professional schools, nothing ever comes of this ... assistance is offered and accepted by blacks to attend school in other states ... this becomes a problem when whites want to take advantage of these scholarships.

Gains Principal is important, it would be used in other cases to overturn Plessy


BTW, not what you say, but how you say it ...

Nathan R. Margold

Gaines Principal, is a symbol of the strategy of chipping away at the absence of equality ... this strategy is effective because it was non-threatening ... over 15 years would win 24 cases using separate but equal ...

At the same time Marshall is pursuing salary equalization cased ... one in New Orleans ... (Alexander P. Tureud) ... this case is started after the Black Teachers Association asks state for a raise, did not respond. White teachers were making better than 50% more than blacks and teaching small classes. When the association decides to sue, they begin looking for a lawyer, at first hires a white, part-time, who decides he would not be capable of handling this case and refers them to Thurgood Marshall, who at the time is busy having just taken job of legal council to NAACP. He recommends Alexander P. Tureud (few LA lawyer), and Marshall agrees to review all briefs before being filed. Joseph McKelpin is selected as plaintiff, who is fires when he asks for equal pay. This is just one of many cases where the court finds that the state (Louisiana) is in violation of the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment. Orders the state to equalize pay for all teachers. Tureud goes on the be involved with NAACP in Louisiana along with Daniel E. Byrd.

Smith v Allwright - Supreme Court rules that Democratic White Primary is illegal in 1944, this leads to more blacks to become registered to vote in South. In Louisiana in '40 there were 2000 blacks registered, in '50 there were 100000.

Before WWII, it was not at all clear that blacks would be treated any differently than during WWI ... there was a War Department Study that found that blacks were inferior to whites, and could not learn skills needed in military. Blacks were being excluded from Calvary and air corps. In 1938, Army announces that its policy would be to have an equal % of blacks in Army as in general population, but generally there is not effort to comply, only 5 black officers in Army, none in Navy. Only 7 states had blacks in National Guard.

Concern over this leads in 1940 to formation of Committee on Participation of Negroes in War . They insist that if blacks fight, they must be treated equal, and there must be backs in every part of the armed services.

1940 is election year, with Roosevelt running for 3rd term, in order to keep black support, agrees to allow blacks in service, in separate units commanded by whites, there would be more black officers, and Benjamin. Davis is promoted to be first black general ever.

When US inters war, problems increase ... south wants to keep blacks out of service, keep them home to work, pass vagrancy laws, rounding up blacks into forced labor gangs. Many blacks are convicted and set to jail for speaking out. Almost as a joke, the Tuskegee Experiment is started to train blacks as pilots, everyone expects them to fail. Flying over 200 missions over Europe and America, do not loose a single bomber. Generally, Blacks are treated with little respect, segregation is informed, and they would indoor harsh discrimination at the hands of whites soldiers.

Treatment on blacks in US is also harsh, A. Philip Randolph organizes a march on Washington to protest, Roosevelt fears there would be trouble, so with executive order # 8802, he bans discrimination at defense plants ... in many places, whites refuse to work alongside of blacks.

Riots in Detroit ... shocking because it occurs in northern city ... leads to the Carnegie Study , conducted by Gunnar Myrdal (Swede) ... Why is race relations so bad in the United States ... it is the first professional study of race in US. The findings are published in a report titled An American Dilemma in 1944
- racism is an extension of slavery, and has expanded since 1865 ...
- Negroes are victors of "Cumulative Causation" (vicious cycle)
- Negro situation is destitute, low irregular income, narrow outlook
- Negro exists at the margins of society
- when slavery ended, a cast system began
- Negroes are economics exploited, kept out of even the bottom levels of society
- Negroes are discriminated against just because they are black
- Federal Government should identify and eliminate these problems, should intervene on side of blacks

1st Exam -
pick 2 of 5 or 6 essay's
Reconstruction, Post Reconstruction, Legal segregation, WWI, NAACP
Reese, Civil Rights Cases, Harris, Plessy, KKK acts, 14th amendment
Washington v Douglas, De Bois,
difference between Civil Rights Acts of '66 and '75


Gains made during 1940 ...

'44 Smith v. Albert ... overturn White only primary ... made it possible for slow reregistration of blacks in south

"The American Dilemma" - more should be done by the Federal Government

'46 Harry S. Truman becomes presidents, Civil Rights becomes a notional issue when Truman challenges Republican's to do something about Civil Rights, I'll sign it ... nothing is passed. At the urging of NAACP, Truman appoints a commission to look into segregation and civil rights. "To Secure These Rights" is report published by commission, Truman is shocked by the large number of groups that are being discriminated against, about the only group not is WAPS (White American Protestants". Decides that something has to be done, by executive order, he integrates the Army ... there is much resistance and movement is slow.

In 1948, the Democratic party is split into 3 groups when Hubert H. Humphrey changes congress to pass legislation guaranteeing civil rights. Southern Democrats split off and form Dixiecrats and nominate Strom Thurmand. Liberals split off and support Henry Wallace. Truman wins election with plurality of votes in many states, with black votes often making the difference. Black vote will no longer be ignored. These are the same people that had moved north in great numbers starting before WWI.

Around this same time, Charles Houston strategy begins to pay off ... slowly build up case law to overturn Plessy.

1948 Shelley v Kramer , St Louis, restrictive Covenant, a contract requiring that owner of property not sell/rent to selected groups (Blacks). Court finds that the contract is binding, but when the state government gets involved in enforcing these contracts, it would be discrimination and violation of 14th amendment.

1950 Court finds that refusing to rent Pullman births to blacks is violation of Interstate Commerce Act

Again, these cases are not important by themselves, but it is the number of victories , over a long time, as suggested by Du Bois.

Some new, young attorneys join NAACP ... Robert Carter, Jack Greenberg, Robert Ming adding support, waiting for right case, right court, right plaintiff. Huston impresses upon them the need to document cases, take pictures, white schools v black schools. By early 1950's, NAACP had been successful in 18 cases, loosing only its first case.

1951 - two major victories ...

McLaurin v. Oklahoma 68 years old, applies for admission to U of Ok Law School, is admitted under Gaines Principal (no separate school available). But special rules apply, forcing McLaurin to sit in doorway of class, separate table in library and cafeteria. McLaurin objects and sues ... S.C. rules, that once admitted, Thea amentment provides for equal protection, and must be treated same as other students.

Sweatt v. Painter (tx) - Sweatt applies for admittance to UT Austin law School, Tx Supreme Court decides on Gaines Principal that he must be admitted. State says that plans are already underway to open an all black law school, and is granted six month extension until completed. Sweatt still sues to be admitted ... the first case that chalanges the seperate but equal provesions of Plessy. Chief justive Fred Vinson compares the two schools, professors, library, buildings, funding ... no question that facilities are not same ... these could be exactally compaired. In addition to these tangables, he consideres intangables such as reputation, presstege. Does not order Black school to be closed, but finds that Sweatt could not be denied right to attend U.T., because he was black and because there is a seperate school. The court seems to be saying that show us that seperate is not equal ... that seperate is a dissadvantage for blacks, that segragation is not equal ... and we will overturn Plessy.

This starts a debate inside the NAACP ... is now the time to challange Plessy, to risk it all, go for broke. At the same time Southern states begin to see that there could be a real challange to Segration, and several states start "Catch Up" programs under governors like James Byrne and Huey Long. Marshall is leary, doesn't think he could loose, doesn't think a loss would be permenit. Up till this time, challanges have come at the highest levels of education, where the % of blacks are lowert.

There are already some cases in court. In South Carolina ... a suit that asked for backs to attend same school as whites, after having been turned down when asking for equal facalities. A similar case from Delaware, from Virgenia, a case from Kansas where there were segragrated grade schools, intergrated high schools, and a case from Washington DC.

Brown v. Board of Education

In 1952, the Supreme Court decides to consolidate these and hear them as one case. In an unusuall move, the Kansas case is chosen to provide a name, usually consolidated cases are named alphabetally. Kansas is chosen because it is not a southern state. It is understood that this will either overturn or reafirm Plessy. The stacks are very high. The court will hear case in December of '52. Understanding its importance, the court asks that the US attorny general submit a brief, it is the outgoing Truman administration, and many are supprised that he supports overturning Plessy. The court also invites each of the remaining 13 states (with segragated school systems) not represented in case to submit briefs. The court hears arguments for 3 days, which is totally unpresented. Justices give little hints about how they are leaning, Marshall is heavly questioned. In another unuseal move, the court ajorns without ruling and states that it will hear additional arguments in fall of 1953. The court is acutally split 3 ways, 3 for, 3 against, 3 undecided. Before reconveining, Chief Justive Vincent dies, one strong vote against overturning. Dwight D. Eisenhower is now president, and because of a political prommis, he nominates Earl Warren (Calf) (recess appointment). So it is Warren who presides over the re-argument of these cases. As chief justice, in review he is first to speak. He seaks to simplfy the issues, saying that a justification to seperate schools can only be a belief that one race is superior to another. If we find that, we should be willing to say it publicly ... put up or shut up. Warren is a convincing guy ... warking on justices that want to vote against overturning Plessy. Working on Stanly Reed (Kn), and Flex Frankford (Ma) to win them over.

14 May 1954, the court announces its unamous decission that Seperate but Equal is Unconstitational.

This is a great vicory for NAACP ... but the court did not order schools desegrated ... and the cases were put back on the calander to be argued abain as to what proceduredshould be followed to implement. The court had already spent more time on this case that any other in its history.

Mrs. Rossevelt on NAACP board probably convences them to move more slowly that otherwise whould have, and Marshall proposes a one year wait for planning, than total intergration. In May 1955, the court makes no recommendation, sending cases back to lower courts for implamentation with "all deliberate speed" In 1956, the southern states react with a program of massive resistance. This is a great leagal victory, but it would take too long to implament.

cut for 2nd Exam ...


Only 2 cities would implement voluntary school desecration after the Brown decision. San Antony TX. In every other state, local law suits had to be brought, and appealed. This would take years to complete.

Mean while, Massive Resistance would be undertake in the South. The Souther Manifesto said that Brown was erroneous, illegal, and should be resisted with "every lawful means." Led by southern citizens, resistence would turn violent, and would rise to proportions of a reign of terror. Since the NAACP led the fight for desegregation, it would become a special object of attack. It would be forced out of existence in Alabama for 10 years, and in many other states (La, 7 years). It was called a subversive origination. Laws were passed by states making it illegal for state employees to belong to any organization that supported integration. Fearful of retaliation, and loss of jobs, blacks had to fall in line.

The implications of Brown reached beyond schools, if segregation was illegal in schools, it must be in other public places.

The Civil Rights movement now moves into a new phase, not just in the courts.

One organization, CORE (Congress on Racial Equality), focuses on desegregation of public facilities mostly in northern cities where segregation is not prohibited by law, just in forced by custom. Using a new tactic, they use peaceful demonstrations, sit downs or sit ins to try to force desecration of public places like lunch counters of department stores.

The Montgomery Bus Boycott of 1956 would bring into existence another new organization, SCLS (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) , headed by Martin Luther King, Jr.

MLK is a reluctant Messiah, from Atlanta, his father and grandfather were Baptist ministers. He graduated from college at 19, earned a PHD, never had to want for anything. Became pastor of Dexter Ave. Baptist Chirch , when Vernon Johns was removed. Johns wanted to lead a movement to gain black rights, and was a fiery preacher on that topic. Dexter members were the most well to do Blacks in Montgomery, and fount Johns to be too radical for their them. That is why they hired the well spoken, educated King. He had been in Montgomery only for a few months when they asked him to lead a protest in support of Rosa Parks . He was asked because they knew him to be reasonable and conservative. He was reluctant to accept, but did. King said that earily on, he would have left Montgomery and accepted the encouragement of his father to co-paster his church if that were possible. Kings appeal was to the intellect.

After the unexpected success of a one day protest in support of Rosa Parks , organizers expand their demands ... the Black boycott of the bus system lasts a whole year, and only ends, when a federal court orders that it be desegregated. King gained national prominence for his exceptional oratorical skills and personal courage. His house was bombed, and he and other boycott leaders were convicted on charged of conspiring to interfere with the bus company's operations. Key , had support of the church, if you going to move black people, do through the Church, We shall overcome... the success of the bus boycott breads other successes. In1957, seeking to build on the success in Montgomery, King and others founded the SCLC in New Orleans, resulted from NAACP being forced out of many southern states. King traveled to West Africa to attend th eindependence celebration of Ghana and toured India, increasing his understanding of Gandhi's non-violence traditions. In 1959, he resigned from Dexter and teturned to Atlanta, the SCLS headquarters.

1956, the massive resistance strategy starts to kick in. In Louisiana is formed the White Citizens Council. This is sugnifficant because it brings together for the first time north and south Louisiana, protestant and catholic. When Archbishop Rummell announces that Catholic schools will be desegregated, Lender Perez (President of WCC), forces him to back down by saying whites would with draw support.

1957 - SCLC builds some steam, with the Civil Rights Act of 1957 , protection for voting rights is removed form bill before it is passed ... would allow Federal Government to investigate Civil Rights Volitions, did not make much differences, was a symbolic measure. In the first challenge by Southern state to Brown , District Court orders Little Rock School Board to desecrated Central High School, Orval Forbs , governor uses the National Guard to prevent it. Pres. Eisenhower reluctantly steps in, Federalizes National Guard. Forbs claims that south is being invaded. He closes the public schools next year.

In Louisiana, new laws are passed to deny Blacks voting rights. Voter registration requires a litercy text, pass a text equalivant to sixth grade education. 39 of 60 3rd year Harvard Law school students fail the test.

Some progress is being made, bus desecration comes in 1958 in New Orleans, '59 Houston, '60 Lafayette.

1960 with Civil Rights Movement at somewhat of a lull, King stabbed in New York, things really heat up. A group of college students in N.C. stage a sit-in in a Woolworth, and this kind of action spreads like wild fire through the South. Almost every city with a Black college is hit with pickets and sit-ins. Students offer a different kind of challenge. They are more impatient, want change yesterday. King has some success organizing them inside of NAACP.

In 1960, Student Non-Violent Corordanating Council (SNCC) become the shock troopers of movement. Freed but not yet Free, Free by '63. Julia Bond . King supports these sit-in, and is arrested when he joins one student sit-in. Candidate John F. Kennedy's sympathetic support of King attracts crucial black support for Kennedy's campaign.

In New Orleans, Dr Cassmere ... in UNO '59, not ridigetly segregated, in summer of 1960, NCCAP youth council is reactivated, Cassmere elected Vice President, soon becomes president. Works in voter registration for Kennedy Nixon election. First sit-in at Woolworth, Kress, arrested... no laws preventing it , disturbing the peace... sensed that he was winning,

MLK, helped people "stop being afraid", power he had over other people is what made him so great.

In 1963, with the first tel-star satellite in place, movement begins to crystallize. Sheriff Mo Conner uses great force, riot gear, fire hoses, in trying to put down demonstrations. King decides to use children, and pictures of this are broad cast round the world ... network news programs use expanded telecasts ... pictures of 8 and 10 year old kids being brutalized ... George Wallace blacking door of Old Miss, moves many to call for action. 1963 produced more violence, more lynchings, church bombing ...

Subsequent mass demonstrations in many communitites culminated in a march on August 28, 1963 (March on Washington ), where 250,000 protesters participated ... King delivered his "I have a dream" speech. His renown as a nonviolent leader grew, and in 1964, King received the Nobel Prize for Peace.

John F. Kennedy after being in office for almost three years proposes new comprehensive Civil Right Bill, leading to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Kennedy is killed in Dallas, but Johnson pushes legislation through. Civil Rights Bill of 1964, passed July 2, 1964 ... after this desegregation proceeds quickly with minimal resistance ... as if most Southers knew designation was inevitable, but needed the Federal government to take action.

Despite the accolades, however, King faced critism of his leadership, especially form northern Blacks. Malcolm X's message of self-defense and black nationalism expresed the anger on urban blacks more effectively than did King's moderation. In 1966, tring to take his movement north, King was physically assaulted in Chicago.


Dr Cassmere, Article for the Crisis, I remember Brown, 40 years later --- Linda Brown v. Board of Education of Topecia Kansas ... J. Skully Wright ordered UNO desigragated, and bus desigration ...

The lesson of Brown is we have the ability to change socity without waiting for government support. In 2029, the 75 annivarsity of Brown , will things be different?

In 1960, there was extreme enthosismy, we believed that we were winning, should remember that a very small number of people were involved ... marching was a vocation, eyes were opened ... some whites did not know the extend of segragation ... because they had accommodated themselves to segration ... it was a patron / client relationship.

Civil Rights Act of 1964 forced desegration through the US, most of NAACP goals were met, the movement began to fracture. In the US the strugle between the haves and have nots got confused with color. The gap between uper and lower class blacks had gotten greater, more segrated than ever ... Don't forget, the movement involved small numbers of people ... in 1972, 179 million people in US, at most .5 million active, 250,000 marched on Washington. Even small numbers can make big differences.

The '64 Civil Rights Act did not cost the country anything, and was the high point of the Civil Rights Movement. Fracture in movement would begin to lessen its effectivness. The effects for the majority of Blacks, poor and getting poorer, was felt little ... without financial means, desegragation ment that blacks were no longer legalally bared from many public places, but they still could not afford to go to them.

It's the VOTE, stupid !!!

Race riots in '64 and (Watts) in '65 ... many services offered Blacks were burned down, and never replaced ... CORE (Congress on Racial Equality) ... don't need whites.

In 1966 troubled by division in movement, King tries to take movement "Up South" north to Chicago, the Open Housing Campaign . Just one year earlier, Malcolm X had warned King about northern white crackers ... were worse, more full of hate, that in South. Many northern whites had little or no contacts with Negroes, and did not want to. This fractured King's movement.

In 1967, King widens his movement by supporting the Anti-War movement. Blacks were experiencing a disproportional burden of fighting that war. King now looses support of Pres. Johnson, and fractures movement again.

When we got to the door, things fell apart.

In 1968, King laments that the unfinished business of the Civil Rights Movement is the unfinished American Agenda... affecting the whole society ... needs to solved for everyone. King became a leader concerned with the problems affecting all people. With his complain turning into a "Poor people's campaign", makes King a dangerous person. Granting civil rights didn't cost anything, solving problems of poor is a completely different matter. J. Edgar Hoover intensified his efforts to discredit King and King's public criticism of the Vietnam War. This also soured his relations with the Johnson administration.


1965 ... What happened to the Civil Rights Movement

Pres. Johnson, in campaigning in '64 announced his "Great Society ". Eliminate poverty ... the War on Poverty ... poverty won, because it never was completely implemented. Some elements were Head Start (home start) to catch at risk students before they entered school. Never fully funded, too much money used at top, little in actually helping people it was intended for. Food Stamps and Medicare , both proposed by Kennedy, was originally targeted at poor whites. Controlled by the states, mushroomed out of control as more and more benefits were added. Medicare was intended to help lower middle class who did not have health insurance. Model Cities was money to help revitalize cities and communities, played by much fraud and abuse. In this, the Federal Government finally came out in favor of intervening on side of underprivileged ... help insure equal oppurtunity and insure results.

A major reason for the success of the Civil Rights Movement was that churches would join in its support, and that support was critical. A side effect of this was that members began to demand more and more control of their church, and accomondations would have to be made.

Women's Rights Movement is another effect of CRM. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 had a provision that employers could not discriminate by race, creed, color, sex. Sex was added by southern legislators in hopes of killing the bill.

United Farm Workers is another off shoot of CRM.

The whole American society would become more sensitive to rights of women, workers, and minorities.

Daniel P. Moynihan , Harvard sociologist, using a 1965 study of the status of Negro family reports disturbing trends. Divorce rate amount Blacks higher than norm, children in one parent homes, 60% of black babies born to unwed mothers. He says that unless these trends are reversed it could lead to serious problems for all and the disintegration of the Black family. The government need to concentrate its efforts in just a few areas to strengthen black families, head start, etc. This would spark an on going debate, but little is done.

In 1968, the Nixon election would be the beginning of a white backlash to the Civil Rights Movement. Public opinion is that enough has been done, and many now begin to resist efforts to desegregate public schools ... George Wallace is one politician who would play on this problem. In the 1966 congressional elections, more conservatives are elected since Civil War.

1967 brings much civil unrest, with large riots in many northern cities (Harlem, Watts, Chicago, Detroit) ... if Blacks have more rights than ever, why is there so much unrest. Many would say that the CRM made it more likely that Blacks would break laws ... but poor Blacks were not being helped much ... the gap between upper and lower class Blacks was widening.

Black Power ... the despair of their plight would give rise to many groups that would push Black solidarity ... these groups feel that it was a mistake to have allowed whites to help during the CRM and would now organize all black groups. Stokeley Carmichael is one, is influenced by Malcolm X. Black Power was an umbrella term used to describe the more militant aspects of the late 1960's CRM. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) a student led group. These groups would reject Martin Luther King, the NAACP, CORE, and would divide the whole Civil Rights Movement. This trend would hinder greatly more progress and lessens white support.

Malcolm X ... son of a Baptist preacher killed by Klan-like whites, destroyed his family and turned him against whites overall. He is responsible for the rise in importance of the teaching of Elijah Muhammad ... Black Moslems ... Malcolm "X" Little, is first exposed to Islam in prison, rose to be the chief spoaksman for the Black Moslems. He was most effective in northern, urban cities and with black intellectuals with his indictments of racism and his advocacy of self-defense and self-reliance. He was opposed to non-violence, denounced most of the leaders of the Civil Rights Movement because of what he saw as white influence. He put forward the notion of self-relience, had a small following. And the CRM leaders denounced him. Malcolm X does have a change in attitude when he visits Mecca where he sees peoples of all races and colors together ... he realizes that it is not white people who are bad, that it is just bad not the color of your skin. His downfall comes after Kennedy's death ... saying the chickens have come home to roost ... is suspended by Elijah Mohammed. X was already having problems with EM, maybe some jealousy, EM was not completely honest with his people either, having relations with some white women. Malcolm X is assassinated in 1965 ... he would become more important in his death then he was in life. Many of his speeches would be published, ect. Even though much of his preaching was conservative, he did help to bring tension between blacks and Jews, the one group of whites that were consistent supporters. This was because of the historic tension between Jews and Islam.

Republic of New Africa

In 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. is still undisputed leader of the CRM. King fought against becoming the sole leader, but he does. He never accumulated any personal wealth. In 1967, King begin plans for a much more ambitious project, a campaign for all poor people. The key was to involve the support of poor whites, of which there were many more than poor blacks, but many poor whites were antagonistic toward King. The campaign received mixed support, but King believed that only by putting massive pressure on government would anything be done... this is not a Black problem, but a poor problem. The Poor Peoples Campaign is much more of a threat to people than the Civil Rights Movement. It didn't cost anything to enacting the Civil Rights Bill of 1964. To lift and bring the poor of America more into the main stream would be a different story. King was in the middle of organizing another march on Washington, the Poor People's march, when he takes a side trip to Memphis in support of a garbage workers strike. On April 3, 1968 he would deliver his last speech, one of his best. Like Fredreck Douglas, King speaks to young blacks ... give oneself to the effort to the end ... you don't need violence ... demand fair treatment ... withdraw economic support. "We've got some difficult days ahead, but don't worry about me, I've been to the mountain top." It doesn't matter what happens to me. I've seen the promised land. On Thursday, April 4, 1968, at 6:30 pm ... at age 39 ... after only 12 years involvement in civil rights, King is assassinated ... by James Earl Ray .

King's death shocks and angers Blacks everywhere ... mindless fear grips many, sadness, guilt. On Friday night Washing DC begins to burn and would continue for 4 days. Many parts of DC that were burned are today still not rebuilt ... mindless violence ... all over the country, blacks feel ... killed our hope, pessimism, fatalism, that nothing is going right.

ML King, Jr. was the foremost leader of his time, black or white. He had the ability to affect people like no one else. A Messiah ...

Black Panthers - Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, targeted by the FBI, not much impact, dismantled by police Raids.

NCCF ?????????

Jessy Jackson ... supporter of MLK, but King did not put much import on him. would be Messiah, ambitious, self-projected leader ... say's the right thing, not committed ... grows in current years ... campaigned for president razed false hopes, running for show ... powerful speaker.


Sports Messiahs

Sports was one of the few areas available to blacks that offered an opportunity for advancement ... a way out of poverty. Before advent of legal segregation, blacks enjoyed some success in professional sports, in baseball, horse racing, and in boxing. Legal segregation and racism would exclude Blacks, saying that they should not be allowed to compete because they were inferior. Even thought men like Oscar Lewis had won the first Kentucky Derby, and others had excelled in boxing, cycling and professional baseball prior to 1890.

Boxing was attractive to many blacks because of being an individuals sport. With the advent of the Queensbury Rules ... a gentleman's sport ... blacks were excluded.

Jack Johnson , 1908 boxing champion of the world, no formal education, well read, actor, well spoken, thought by many to be arrogant (because he insisted on being treated with respect). The 1915 Mann Act is passed to entrap Johnson. It make it illegal to transport white women across state lines to be used in prostitution. Johnson kept company with many white women, when charged he leaves the country ... since a white couldn't beat him in the ring. In 1915, in order to prove that he could be defeated, he is forced into a fight at age 36 in Cuba ... is KO'ed in 21st round. It would be 20 years before any black would be allowed to challenge ...

Joe Lewis , would be trained to be a gentlemen in order to be allowed to box. He did not challenge whites in the ring or out. Wins world championship in 1937. He is kind, generous, member of the NAACP, served as Sargent and entertainer during WWII ...

It is athletes like Joe Lewis that open doors for other black entertainers like Marion Anderson ... singer, '39 Easter sunday concert arranged by Mrs Roosevelt when Anderson is denied the use of Independance Hall by the Daughters of the American Revolution ... gains more prominence because of it ...

Like the rest of the black population, black entertainers were not allowed access to public facilities..

Jackie Robertson ... breaks color line ... proud of his talents and his blackness ... fought racism throughout his life ... in college, in the army (court-martialed for defying illegal segregation on army bus). Branch Rickey of the Brooklyn Dodgers wants to take advantage of untapped black ballplayers. He selects Robertson because he is not condescending, not because he was the best black player ... makes him promiss not to speak out for two years, to hold back, give the world a chance to accept him. After one year in minors (at Montreal, would not play southern teams), Jackie Robertson plays Major League Baseball, succeeds beyond all expectations. By 1950, every major league team would have at least one Black player. He protests his treatments, but accepts ... would force Major League Baseball to get behind movement to desegregate public accommodations. He was a great player, but his biggest accomplishment was his articulate encouragement of young Blacks to fight for their rights. He was the foremost black leader of his time, looked up to by more Blacks, even more than the leaders in the Civil Rights Movements.

Jim Brown and Paul Brown would force the NFL to integrate. Jim Brown would also stand for his rights equal to any man. When Dallas joins NFL, Brown announces he would not play there if public accommodations are segregated. Dallas become one of first southern cities to desegregate.

Wilt Chamberlain ...

When all is considered, it is the ordinary people's will to survive that make it possible for hero's like these to excel. In recent year, sports hero's have begun to refuse to be considered role model. Success comes so early, it is possible that they do not have the experience of the general population to prepare them for their success and the responsibility that comes with it.


Sports figures were hero's outside of the CRM.

1920 the State of Verginia passes legislation making it legal to sterlize unfit blacks. 1000's were ... inherented defects ... eliminate undersirable trates ... prizes offered to families who excelled ... Churchill, Oliver Wendel Homes, and others leaders agreed that it was OK to eliminate utfit. Exploytation of groups can esily happen ... inherent weakness of blond hair, blue eyes ...

The fracturing of the Civil Rights Movement begins before King's death. With Stokly Carmichael adn H. Rap Brown puting forward a message of exclusion, that black must look to within, whites were not qualified to help. They were opposed by some blacks like Julian Bond...

CORE, Floyd McKissick , member of NAACP, republican, chairman of CORE, sides with those who contend that an all black community is needed ... receives funding from Nixon administration for agreeing not to push desigration ...

Many black leaders begin to turn away from CRM to politics ... and at the same time, blacks, while relaining Democratic, whold as a group vote in smaller number than before. If the same percentage of Blacks that had voted for Johnson, would have voted in the next election, Nixon would not have won.

Many blacks would be opposed to the war in Viet Nam, with a larger percentabe of men being draftet were blacks and poor people in general. Whites were receiving deferments as students in large numbers.

There was also a Culturial Revolution going on in the black community ... how do we call ourselves, is black a nown or adjective, black or colored, most accept "Black" ... dress and hiair styles change ... Afro ... sudo African clothes ... soal food ... this gives many blacks a chance to make a statement ...

If we are going to be ourselves, we need to speak with one voice ...

1972 National Black Political Convention , in Gary, Ind. hosted by the black mayor Richard Hatcher ... most people attending were black political leaders, democrats. One purpose was to form a black political party. The best outcome was a commentment to orginie at the olcal level, to convince thosewho are disillusioned to register to vote, the importance for local not national black political partisipation, a grass roots movement ... target the powerless, the poor welfare-dependent. Some were puting forward the idea that blacks didn't need laws, trying to make an agenda without rules. Pan-Afericanism ... the need to identify with Blacks from around the world ... would almost split the convention. How could establishing ties with Lyberia and Ethopeia where blackswere exploiting native black populations be justified in the strugle in the US to oppose white explotation of blacks. Only a few visionaries were brave enouth to speak out ... Leroi Jones, we cannot critize white oppression and at the same time associate with black oppressive governments. Very little came out of this convention, but Jessy Jackson did emerge as a leading black.

Jessy Jackson, PUSH (People United to Save Humanity) - at first discourages blacks from politics (orgize for explotation) ... then runs for mayor of Chicago, is soundly defeated, loosing black vote 3 to 1. Later ran for president twice '84, '88. Is a potential massiah, the most recoginizable black leader ... but where is he going ... his run for president gave black people a sence of worth. Coleman Young , openly opposed Jackson's campaigns, questioning his qualifications. Jackson in '88 did receive a larger popular vote than any other democratic candidate. Now, age 53, many say that he is too old, that he cannot represent black youth.

Louis Ferrican , Black Moslum, leader of the Nation of Islam ... opposed to the opening of his movement to non-blacks. Has been effective in representing the Moslem movement, but since he is outside of the black church, his implact will be small, though many younger blacks find him attractive. 20,000 members limits his attactiveness as a national leader. The perception of his antagonistic attitude toward Jews also limits his appeal.

General Colen Powell ... Charimain of the Joint Chieffs ... highest military position ... no political experience ... supported by republicans ... limits his effectivness.

There is a large pool of female black leaders, 56% of registered blacks are women.

Who will be the next messiah, a women ...

NAACP ... local chapters are responsible for themeselves ...
has been transition since late 1960's ... Ben Cheavers, executive secretary
having achieved it agenda by 1960, with is being more dificult in America to discriminate, NAACP has gone in multiple directions. It is still the most respected of all black orginizations, a membership orginization with 6 to 7 million blacks belonging during the last few years. ($10). Its best role has always been as a protest orginization, but with limited resources it has been involved in housing, echonomic developmetn, day care and other social issure.

Will events of today lead to another Black Messiah ?
During the depression, there was a sence of hopefullness, belief that something could be done. Today it is a sense of hopelessness, ... it is much easier to devide thosewho have less, leading a popular movement ... to gain more from the haves for the have nots ... is a dificult task.